Abstract

Since 1989 Service d’Aéronomie du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique has used an incoherent Doppler lidar technique for wind measurements in the atmosphere. A new-generation Rayleigh–Mie Doppler lidar has been designed and is currently operated at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France). We give a detailed description of this instrument and highlight two important upgrades leading to quasi-simultaneous and absolute measurements of the wind from ≈8 to 50 km altitude. The possible sources of error are identified and quantified in terms of accuracy in the wind determination. Experimental results are given in detail, and a validation of the measurements is performed with the help of ancillary data. A first climatological description of the mean wind is briefly reported.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, “The Doppler Rayleigh lidar system at Arecibo,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 36–47 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4212 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for stratospheric measurements. II. Impact of Mie scattering, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.2422–2431 (1998).
  11. M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis technique for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple-channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS Thermospheric Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Mid-latitude lidar observations of planetary waves in the middle atmosphere during winter of 1981–1982,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3843–3849 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for stratospheric measurements. II. Impact of Mie scattering, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.2422–2431 (1998).

1997 (4)

1996 (3)

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, “The Doppler Rayleigh lidar system at Arecibo,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 36–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (2)

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS Thermospheric Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Mid-latitude lidar observations of planetary waves in the middle atmosphere during winter of 1981–1982,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3843–3849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

Avery, S. K.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

Chanin, M.-L.

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Mid-latitude lidar observations of planetary waves in the middle atmosphere during winter of 1981–1982,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3843–3849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chaxel, Y.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. R.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckermann, S. D.

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, E. L.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S. J.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. J.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for stratospheric measurements. II. Impact of Mie scattering, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.2422–2431 (1998).

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B. M.

Gibson-Wilde, D.

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, N.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, E.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Mid-latitude lidar observations of planetary waves in the middle atmosphere during winter of 1981–1982,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3843–3849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

Hedin, A. E.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS Thermospheric Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for stratospheric measurements. II. Impact of Mie scattering, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.2422–2431 (1998).

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hines, C. O.

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Irgang, T. D.

Keckhut, Ph.

Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kirkwood, S.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kjome, N. T.

B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, B. M.

B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Kurschner, D.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. X.

Lubken, F. J.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A. F.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A. H.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

Meredith, N. P.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourier, A.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, D.

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S. I.

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, “The Doppler Rayleigh lidar system at Arecibo,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 36–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schminder, R.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

Souprayen, C.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for stratospheric measurements. II. Impact of Mie scattering, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.2422–2431 (1998).

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tepley, C. A.

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, “The Doppler Rayleigh lidar system at Arecibo,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 36–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vial, F.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R.

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. A.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vyssogorets, M.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C. Y.

Whitten, A. T.

B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Widdel, H. U.

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, C. O. Hines, “Initial Doppler Rayleigh lidar results from Arecibo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Gibson-Wilde, R. Vincent, C. Souprayen, S. Godin, A. Hertzog, S. D. Eckermann, “Dual lidar observations of mesoscale fluctuations of ozone and horizontal winds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1627–1630 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. A. Tepley, S. I. Sargoytchev, “The Doppler Rayleigh lidar system at Arecibo,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 36–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

Ph. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (4)

M.-L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, Y. Chaxel, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Gonzalez, A. Hauchecorne, S. Kirkwood, F. J. Lubken, A. F. Manson, A. Mourier, F. J. Schmidlin, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, W. Singer, H. U. Widdel, “Intercomparisons of simultaneous remote and in situ wind measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1985–2001 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, R. A. Vincent, “Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1421–1447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

B. M. Knudsen, N. T. Kjome, A. T. Whitten, “Comparison of analyzed stratospheric temperatures and calculated trajectories with long-duration balloon data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19137–19145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M.-L. Chanin, “Mid-latitude lidar observations of planetary waves in the middle atmosphere during winter of 1981–1982,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3843–3849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS Thermospheric Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shape of the backscattered line embedded between the FPI bandpasses. The thin Mie line appears on top of the thermally broaden Rayleigh line. The A and B labels refer to the different areas of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FPI (dark part) within the sealed box. The stepper piston mechanism is depicted in the upper part. Only one of the two windows along the optical axis can be seen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the lidar optical setup. Four blocks are drawn for the eastward, westward, northward, and vertical pointings. Details are drawn for two blocks. Each one is made of four, 50-cm diameter telescopes for the reception plus an afocal system in the center, expanding the laser beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral drift of the laser line during the measurement as seen on the line position at 20 km for the vertical (solid curve), zonal (dashed curve) and meridional (dashed-dotted curve) directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curves R = f(P) for several atmospheric temperatures. The slopes (sensibilities) about the origin are reported in the upper left part (units of inverse picometers).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparisons between the Doppler lidar profiles and the meteorological balloon wind profiles (thin solid curves) obtained from launches at 23:00 UT in Nı̂mes (100 km westward from OHP). For each panel, the thick (resp. dashed curve) is for the upper (resp. lower) channel Doppler lidar profile and the crosses refer to the ECMWF analysis at midnight. Errors bars corresponding to ±1σ are indicated every 2 km: (a) and (b) sharply peaked strong jet, (c) and (d) large-amplitude wave pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparisons between the wind profiles from the Doppler lidar and from a GPS-instrumented balloon launched at OHP at 20:28 UT. (Same conventions as for Fig. 6.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of measurements for the period February 1994–September 1997 employed for the (a) monthly and (b) seasonal averages.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) zonal and (b) meridional components of wind averaged over all seasons and for several years (165 profiles). Lidar (thick solid curve) and associated rms (thin solid curve), ECMWF and rms (thick solid curves ending at 30 km).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparisons for (a) winter 39 profiles, (b) spring 44 profiles, (c) summer 57 profiles, (d) autumn 27 profiles. The reported error bars are for the statistical photon noise. The maximum deviation is observed in winter. (The zonal component is positive at 15 km.)

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) and (b) Seasonal variation of monthly averaged winds over OHP from Doppler lidar, (c) and (d) ECMWF analysis. The eastward (resp. northward) components are on the left (resp. right) panels. The grey index for the wind intensities is shown between the panels.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) and (b) Seasonal variation of monthly averaged winds over OHP from Doppler lidar. (c) and (d) HWM93 climatological wind model calculated for the OHP location. Note that the intensity range for the meridional wind given by the HWM93 model has been reduced to ±10 ms-1. Substantial differences (sign and intensity) are observed for this component.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δλz=2δλvz=2λ0 sin θ vhzc,
Rz, θ=CNAz, θ-NBz, θCNAz, θ+NBz, θ,
Pz, θ=λ0z, θ-λC=λ0+2δλvz, θ-λC.
vhz=c2λ0 sin 40°Pz, 40-Pz, 0¯,
Δλs=λ0Δeem.
δvhzvh=δCC Rmz,
Nc=Nr exp-NrNrmax,
σR=C+14C1/2NANA-fcA,

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