Abstract

The spatial resolution of position-sensitive detectors that use stacks of microchannel plates (MCP’s) with high-resolution anodes can be better than 20-µm FWHM [Proc. SPIE 3114, 283–294 (1997)]. At this level of accuracy, channel misalignments of the MCP’s in the stack can cause observable moiré interference patterns. We show that the flat-field detector response can have moiré beat pattern modulations of as great as ∼27% with periods from as small as a few channel diameters to as great as the size of a MCP multifiber. These modulations, however, may be essentially eliminated by rotation of the MCP’s or by a mismatch of the channel sizes. We also discuss how the modulation phenomena can be a useful tool for mapping the metric nonlinearities of MCP detector readout systems. Employing the optical moiré effect, we demonstrate a simple, but effective, technique for evaluation of geometrical deformations simultaneously over a large MCP area. For a typical MCP, with a 60-channel-wide multifiber, we can obtain accuracies of 1.2 mrad for multifiber rotations and twists and 35/(L/ p) mrad for channel-long axis distortions (where L/ p is MCP thickness to interchannel distance ratio). This technique may be used for the development of MCP x-ray optics, which impose tight limitations on geometrical distortions, which in turn are not otherwise easily measurable with high accuracy.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu, “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. M. Hassler, G. J. Rottman, G. M. Lawrence, “Position offsets in curved-channel microchannel plate detectors,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3575–3581 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

J. C.-Y. Yang, W. H. Tsai, “Suppression of moiré patterns in scanned halftone images by double scans with grid movements,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 18, 213–227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, “A large area MCP detector for x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 384, 410–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Osterman, G. J. Rottman, D. M. Hassler, W. E. McClintock, G. M. Lawrence, “Comparison of the imaging characteristics of curved-channel and straight-channel microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 753–759 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu, “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An x-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (3)

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lawrence, “Hex-square moiré patterns in imagers using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4337–4343 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. P. Williams, D. H. Davies, G. Harburn, “On randomization techniques for the suppression of unwanted moiré patterns in images generated by a scanning system with a periodic amplitude defect,” Opt. Acta 33, 1311–1319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. Yokozeki, “Moire fringes,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 15–27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as x-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abiad, R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as x-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arkadiev, V. A.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barstow, M. A.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu, “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, D. M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. H.

R. P. Williams, D. H. Davies, G. Harburn, “On randomization techniques for the suppression of unwanted moiré patterns in images generated by a scanning system with a periodic amplitude defect,” Opt. Acta 33, 1311–1319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Donakowski, W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, M. L.

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Emberson, D. L.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feller, W. B.

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu, “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “Imaging detectors for FUV and UEV wavelengths,” Adv. Space Res. 11(11), 155–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

Gaines, G. A.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glatt, I.

O. Kafri, I. Glatt, The Physics of Moire Metrology (Wiley, New York, 1990).

Gorny, H. E.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gruev, D. I.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gummin, M. A.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harburn, G.

R. P. Williams, D. H. Davies, G. Harburn, “On randomization techniques for the suppression of unwanted moiré patterns in images generated by a scanning system with a periodic amplitude defect,” Opt. Acta 33, 1311–1319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hassler, D. M.

Haycocks, J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hull, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P. N.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kafri, O.

O. Kafri, I. Glatt, The Physics of Moire Metrology (Wiley, New York, 1990).

Karnaukhov, A. A.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kessel, R.

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kolomiitsev, A. V.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kromer, K. E.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumakhov, M. A.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Langhoff, N.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lapington, J. S.

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, G. M.

Lees, J. E.

J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, “A large area MCP detector for x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 384, 410–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu, “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Magoncelli, T.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, D. R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

McClintock, W. E.

Naletto, G.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An x-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 216–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, S. N.

Pearson, J. F.

J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, “A large area MCP detector for x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 384, 410–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An x-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 216–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Priedhorsky, W. C.

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An x-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 216–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raffanti, R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

Rode, A. V.

Rodriguez-Bell, T.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rottman, G. J.

Sasseen, T.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

Shandintsev, D. V.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, W.

Smith, G. C.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stock, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stock, J. M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

Strack, R.

Tremsin, A. S.

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, W. H.

J. C.-Y. Yang, W. H. Tsai, “Suppression of moiré patterns in scanned halftone images by double scans with grid movements,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 18, 213–227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I. C. E.

Walton, D. M.

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wedell, R.

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weijian, C.

C. Xiangqun, C. Weijian, “Calculation of the contrast of moiré deflectometric fringes,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, G. M. Brown, O. Y. Kwon, M. Kujawinska, eds., Proc. SPIE2003, 185–192 (1993).

White, P. B.

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, P. L.

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. P.

R. P. Williams, D. H. Davies, G. Harburn, “On randomization techniques for the suppression of unwanted moiré patterns in images generated by a scanning system with a periodic amplitude defect,” Opt. Acta 33, 1311–1319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Willingale, R.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiza, J. L.

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Xiangqun, C.

C. Xiangqun, C. Weijian, “Calculation of the contrast of moiré deflectometric fringes,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, G. M. Brown, O. Y. Kwon, M. Kujawinska, eds., Proc. SPIE2003, 185–192 (1993).

Yang, J. C.-Y.

J. C.-Y. Yang, W. H. Tsai, “Suppression of moiré patterns in scanned halftone images by double scans with grid movements,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 18, 213–227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokozeki, S.

S. Yokozeki, “Moire fringes,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 15–27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

G. W. Fraser, “Imaging detectors for FUV and UEV wavelengths,” Adv. Space Res. 11(11), 155–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as x-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, M. Lampton, “A position sensitive detector for EUV remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 36, 916–920 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An x-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, “A large area MCP detector for x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 384, 410–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, P. B. White, “Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 379, 139–151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. P. Williams, D. H. Davies, G. Harburn, “On randomization techniques for the suppression of unwanted moiré patterns in images generated by a scanning system with a periodic amplitude defect,” Opt. Acta 33, 1311–1319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Yokozeki, “Moire fringes,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 15–27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. A. Arkadiev, H. E. Gorny, D. I. Gruev, A. A. Karnaukhov, A. V. Kolomiitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, N. Langhoff, D. V. Shandintsev, R. Wedell, “The use of x-ray capillary optics for lithography and microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 309–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

J. C.-Y. Yang, W. H. Tsai, “Suppression of moiré patterns in scanned halftone images by double scans with grid movements,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 18, 213–227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. L. Edgar, R. Kessel, J. S. Lapington, D. M. Walton, “Spatial charge cloud distribution of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3673–3680 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, T. Sasseen, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, “Delay line microchannel plate detectors for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer satellite,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 388–399 (1994).

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, G. Naletto, G. A. Gaines, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, R. Abiad, T. Rodriguez-Bell, T. Magoncelli, P. N. Jelinsky, W. Donakowski, K. E. Kromer, “Performance of the double delay line microchannel plate detectors for the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 283–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, G. W. Fraser, A. S. Tremsin, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “MCP based x-ray collimators for lithography of semiconductor devices,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 212–221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Kafri, I. Glatt, The Physics of Moire Metrology (Wiley, New York, 1990).

C. Xiangqun, C. Weijian, “Calculation of the contrast of moiré deflectometric fringes,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, G. M. Brown, O. Y. Kwon, M. Kujawinska, eds., Proc. SPIE2003, 185–192 (1993).

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 216–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MCP transmission photo showing pores and multifibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the moiré period T moiré with angular displacement between two circular-pore or two square-pore MCP’s with pore-to-pore distances p1 and p2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of moiré modulation with relative angle between MCP’s. Images were obtained with full-field uniform UV illumination and contain approximately 108 counts. Front MCP was rotated by 180 + (a) 0.9°, (b) 1.5°, (c) 1.8°, and (d) ∼25° relative to the middle MCP. The contrast on the images was enhanced to highlight the moiré pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of (a) multifiber rotation, (b) twist, and (c) long-axis misalignment inside a MCP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of angular displacement α between two MCP’s (crosses) and accuracy of its measurements (triangles and diamonds) with (T moiré/p). Diamonds, T moiré can be measured with an accuracy of 1 pitch size; triangles, T moiré can be measured with an accuracy of 3 pitch sizes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Moiré beat pattern obtained with two Philips MCP’s (80:1 L/ D, 0° bias, 12.5-µm pores on 15-µm centers) backilluminated with white light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Moiré beat pattern from the two surfaces of the same MCP. Images of the front and the rear sides were taken separately and then digitally superposed. (a) Both sides are aligned such that the front image positionally matches the back. Multifiber rotations do not contribute to the pattern distortions. (b) Back (inverted vertically) and rear images are misaligned by 180°. Angular rotations between the multifibers determine the visible variation of pattern period. Vertical shear line in (a) is an artifact of the images’ superposition.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of long-axis intermultifiber rotation γ with (T moiré/p). Diamonds, T moiré can be measured with an accuracy of 1 pitch size; triangles, T moiré can be measured with an accuracy of 3 pitch sizes.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ablockedcirc=1-6arccosp3dd-p31-p23d21/2πd
Ablockedsq=1-2d-p2d2
rmn=x, ymn=p32 m, n+l2,
RMN=p2 sinα/2M+N2+1pδx sinα2+δy cosα2, 32 N+1pδy sinα2-δx cosα2,
RMN=p2 sinα2M+1pδx sinα2+δy cosα2,N+1pδy sinα2-δx cosα2.
Tmoire´=p2 sinα/2.
Δα-2Tmoire´/p4Tmoire´/p2-11/2 ΔTmoire´/p.
γi=γxi, γyi=arctan-pΔRyiLTmoire´, arctanpΔRxiLTmoire´,

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