Abstract

Optical coherence tomographic images of human dentin and enamel are obtained by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. A birefringence effect in enamel (λ = 856 nm) and light propagation along dentinal tubules are observed. The group index of refraction for both dentin and enamel was measured at 1.50 ± 0.02 and 1.62 ± 0.02, respectively.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998

1997

1996

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, M. C. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Group refractive index measurement of dry and hydrated type I collagen films using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1993

1992

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, “A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404–1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

1976

R. E. Walton, W. C. Outhwaite, D. P. Pashley, “Magnification—An interesting optical property of dentin,” J. Dent. Res. 55, 639–642 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

D. Spitzer, J. J. ten Bosch, “The absorption and scattering of light in bovine and human dental enamel,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 17, 129–137 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altshuler, G. B.

G. B. Altshuler, V. N. Grisimov, “New optical effects in the human hard tooth tissue,” in Lasers and Medicine, V. I. Konov, G. J. Mueller, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. SPIE1353, 97–102 (1989).

Balooch, M.

G. W. Marshall, S. J. Marshall, J. H. Kinney, M. Balooch, “The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding,” J. Dent. 25, 441–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, “A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404–1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

Boyed, A.

A. Boyed, “Enamel,” in Teeth, A. Oksche, L. Vollrath, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 309–473.
[CrossRef]

Carr, S.

Chang, M. C.

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, M. C. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Group refractive index measurement of dry and hydrated type I collagen films using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chida, K.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

Danielson, B. L.

Dave, D.

Davies, D. E. N.

de Boer, J. F.

Dhond, R. P.

Everett, M. J.

Featherstone, J. D. B.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Glena, R. E.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 57–70.

Gray, D. F.

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grisimov, V. N.

G. B. Altshuler, V. N. Grisimov, “New optical effects in the human hard tooth tissue,” in Lasers and Medicine, V. I. Konov, G. J. Mueller, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. SPIE1353, 97–102 (1989).

Hee, M. R.

Höhling, H. J.

H. J. Höhling, “Special aspects of biomineralization of dental tissues,” in Teeth, A. Oksche, L. Vollrath, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 475–524.
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kinney, J. H.

G. W. Marshall, S. J. Marshall, J. H. Kinney, M. Balooch, “The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding,” J. Dent. 25, 441–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knüttel, A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, G. W.

G. W. Marshall, S. J. Marshall, J. H. Kinney, M. Balooch, “The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding,” J. Dent. 25, 441–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, S. J.

G. W. Marshall, S. J. Marshall, J. H. Kinney, M. Balooch, “The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding,” J. Dent. 25, 441–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Newton, S. A.

Noda, J.

Outhwaite, W. C.

R. E. Walton, W. C. Outhwaite, D. P. Pashley, “Magnification—An interesting optical property of dentin,” J. Dent. Res. 55, 639–642 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, G. M.

Pashley, D. P.

R. E. Walton, W. C. Outhwaite, D. P. Pashley, “Magnification—An interesting optical property of dentin,” J. Dent. Res. 55, 639–642 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafato, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seka, W.

Sorin, W. V.

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, R. P. Dhond, W. V. Sorin, S. A. Newton, “Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 20, 524–526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, “A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404–1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, D.

D. Spitzer, J. J. ten Bosch, “The absorption and scattering of light in bovine and human dental enamel,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 17, 129–137 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Takada, K.

ten Bosch, J. J.

J. R. Zijp, J. J. ten Bosch, “Theoretical model for the scattering of light by dentin and comparison with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 32, 411–415 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Spitzer, J. J. ten Bosch, “The absorption and scattering of light in bovine and human dental enamel,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 17, 129–137 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Walton, R. E.

R. E. Walton, W. C. Outhwaite, D. P. Pashley, “Magnification—An interesting optical property of dentin,” J. Dent. Res. 55, 639–642 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, M. C. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Group refractive index measurement of dry and hydrated type I collagen films using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, R. P. Dhond, W. V. Sorin, S. A. Newton, “Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 20, 524–526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitenberg, C. D.

Yokohama, I.

Youngquist, R. C.

Zijp, J. R.

Appl. Opt.

Calcif. Tissue Res.

D. Spitzer, J. J. ten Bosch, “The absorption and scattering of light in bovine and human dental enamel,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 17, 129–137 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, “A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404–1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, M. C. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Group refractive index measurement of dry and hydrated type I collagen films using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Dent.

G. W. Marshall, S. J. Marshall, J. H. Kinney, M. Balooch, “The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding,” J. Dent. 25, 441–458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Dent. Res.

R. E. Walton, W. C. Outhwaite, D. P. Pashley, “Magnification—An interesting optical property of dentin,” J. Dent. Res. 55, 639–642 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafato, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Boyed, “Enamel,” in Teeth, A. Oksche, L. Vollrath, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 309–473.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Höhling, “Special aspects of biomineralization of dental tissues,” in Teeth, A. Oksche, L. Vollrath, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 475–524.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 57–70.

G. B. Altshuler, V. N. Grisimov, “New optical effects in the human hard tooth tissue,” in Lasers and Medicine, V. I. Konov, G. J. Mueller, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. SPIE1353, 97–102 (1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a sagittal section of a human molar (left) and a slab sample (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PS-OCT instrumentation: SLD, superluminescent diode; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; NDF, neutral-density filter; M, reflection mirror; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; A/D, analog-to-digital converter; PC, personal computer; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(d) PS-OCT images of an enamel disk sample, 1.2 mm wide by 350 µm deep: (a) horizontal [I H (z)], (b) vertical [I V (z)], (c) sum of (a) and (b) [I H (z) + I V (z)], (d) birefringent image [sgn[I H (z) - I V (z)]10log|I H (z) - I V (z)|]. The enamel–dentin boundary is indicated. (e) Schematic of a tooth cross section, (f) enlargement of the scanned region. The thin lines in the enamel region represent prism cylinders. The lateral scan direction is parallel to the prism cylinders.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) PS-OCT image [I H (z) + I V (z)] of a tooth sample extending through the diameter of the sample disk (10.8 mm wide by 600 µm deep). (b) Schematic of a tooth cross section corresponding to the PS-OCT image in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PS-OCT image of enamel [I H (z) + I V (z)] from which the group refractive index and the physical thickness of the sample (1.2 mm wide by 600 µm deep) are determined.

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