Abstract

Silicon nitrides are synthesized by ion-assisted deposition with only one coating material and a nitrogen-ion-beam source. All the SiNx films are amorphous and mechanically strong. A wide range of refractive indices from 3.43 to 1.72 at a wavelength of 1550 nm is obtained. Near-IR antireflection coating and a bandpass filter based on the multilayers of SiNx and Si are demonstrated.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).
  2. R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kuo, F. C. Ho, “Amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process as optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5561–5566 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Cros, J. C. Rostaing, “Optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4536–4544 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Inukai, K. Ono, “Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2593–2598 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Netterfield, R. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, “Synthesis of silicon nitride and silicon oxide films by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3808–3809 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. P. Donovan, D. V. Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, G. K. Hubler, “Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1–x)Nx films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2940–2944 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Ward, “Effective medium theory,” in The Optical Constants of Bulk Materials and Films (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1992), Section 8.3, p. 246.
  15. Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. K. Hubler, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition: Technique and film properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 115, 181–192 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Cushing, “Bandpass filters for communications,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), FA4-1/429-430.

1997 (1)

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Inukai, K. Ono, “Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2593–2598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

Y. Cros, J. C. Rostaing, “Optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4536–4544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).

Boher, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B. G.

B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).

Bulkin, P. V.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carosella, C. A.

Cros, Y.

Y. Cros, J. C. Rostaing, “Optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4536–4544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cushing, D.

D. Cushing, “Bandpass filters for communications,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), FA4-1/429-430.

Dehan, E.

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, E. P.

Hanselmann, F.

B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).

Henda, R.

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hennet, L.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Hora, R.

B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).

Houdy, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hubler, G. K.

Inukai, T.

T. Inukai, K. Ono, “Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2593–2598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, A. D. F.

Kuo, L. C.

Lacquet, B. M.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liou, Y. Y.

C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

Netterfield, R. P.

Ono, K.

T. Inukai, K. Ono, “Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2593–2598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pedroviejo, J. J.

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ramm, J.

B. G. Bovard, J. Ramm, R. Hora, F. Hanselmann, “Silicon nitride thin films by low voltage reactive ion plating: optical properties and composition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4426–4421 (1980).

Rostaing, J. C.

Y. Cros, J. C. Rostaing, “Optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4536–4544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Scheid, E.

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, P. G.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Temple-Boyer, P.

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. Y.

Vechten, D. V.

Ward, L.

L. Ward, “Effective medium theory,” in The Optical Constants of Bulk Materials and Films (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1992), Section 8.3, p. 246.

Woollam, J. A.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. M.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Cros, J. C. Rostaing, “Optical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4536–4544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. C. Lee, Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Jaing, “Improvement of the homogeneity of optical thin films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1149–1154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Inukai, K. Ono, “Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2593–2598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

G. K. Hubler, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition: Technique and film properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 115, 181–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

E. Dehan, P. Temple-Boyer, R. Henda, J. J. Pedroviejo, E. Scheid, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx and SiNx materials,” Thin Solid Films 266, 14–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, “Controlled index of refraction silicon oxynitride films characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 206, 248–253 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Cushing, “Bandpass filters for communications,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), FA4-1/429-430.

L. Ward, “Effective medium theory,” in The Optical Constants of Bulk Materials and Films (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1992), Section 8.3, p. 246.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the synthesis of SiN x by IAD. PBN, plasma beam neutralizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XPS spectrum of a Si film; J = 0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XPS spectrum of Si3N4 film, J = 40 µA/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS spectrum of a SiN x film; J = 30 µA/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of SiN x films deposited on BK-7 glass with various ion-beam current densities (J).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive index and extinction coefficient of SiN x films at 1550 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index of synthesized SiN x films versus Si3N4 volume fraction (q%).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Volume fraction (q%) of Si3N4 versus (a) ion current density, (b) (N ion)/(Si atom) ratio.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Single-layer AR coating on one side of a ground Si wafer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Short-wavelength-pass filter deposited on a Si wafer with an AR coating on the backside.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Microhardness of Synthesized SiNx and Si Films as a Function of Ion-Beam Current at Ion-Beam Voltage 550 V

Equations (2)

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q nA2-n2nA2+2n2+1-qnB2-n2nB2+2n2=0.
α=J/Q/ρr,

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