Abstract

Highly accurate optical magnetic-field probe sensors that use iron garnet films have been developed. New probe-type sensors were designed with a confocal optical system. A new garnet composition, Bi0.98Gd0.92La0.03Y1.07Fe4.72Ga0.28O12, was found that shows high temperature stability for a sensitivity of less than 2.0% from -20 to +80 °C. The linearity error of the sensor output was within 1.0% for alternating magnetic fields from 0.3 to 42 mT. An optical current transformer that uses the proposed sensor has an ac linearity of 1.0% for input current up to nearly 300 A. The sensor realized high performance in actual use.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. Emerging technologies working group and fiber optic sensors working group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 9, 1778–1788 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. W. Day, K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, “Fundamental and problems of fiber current sensors,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 124–129.
  4. K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducers using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” Opt. Rev. 4, 38–44 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Sato, I. Sone, “Development of bulk-optic current sensor using glass ring type Faraday cells,” Opt. Rev. 4, 35–37 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Katsukawa, S. Yokoi, “Optical current transducer with bulk type Bi12SiO20 Faraday sensor for power systems,” Opt. Rev. 4, 50–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Wolfe, R. A. Lieberman, “Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on domain wall motion in garnet film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1733–1735 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. N. Deeter, “Domain effects in Faraday effect sensors based on iron garnets,” Appl. Opt. 34, 655–658 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Mori, Y. Asahara, “Linearity of the Faraday-rotation-type ac magnetic-field sensor with a ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic rotator film,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1083–1087 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, “Magneto-optic sensors based on iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4113–4117 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. The accuracy class required for current transformers is based on the following standards. (in Japanese): (1) Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JIS C) 1731 Instrument Transformer (for standard and common measuring instruments), (2) JEC-1201 Instrument Transformer (for protective relay).
  16. S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.
  18. T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.
  21. N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.
  22. H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.
  23. G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

1997 (4)

K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducers using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” Opt. Rev. 4, 38–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, I. Sone, “Development of bulk-optic current sensor using glass ring type Faraday cells,” Opt. Rev. 4, 35–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katsukawa, S. Yokoi, “Optical current transducer with bulk type Bi12SiO20 Faraday sensor for power systems,” Opt. Rev. 4, 50–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

M. N. Deeter, “Domain effects in Faraday effect sensors based on iron garnets,” Appl. Opt. 34, 655–658 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

Emerging technologies working group and fiber optic sensors working group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 9, 1778–1788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

R. Wolfe, R. A. Lieberman, “Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on domain wall motion in garnet film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1733–1735 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

Day, G. W.

K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, “Magneto-optic sensors based on iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4113–4117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Day, K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, “Fundamental and problems of fiber current sensors,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 124–129.

Deeter, M. N.

M. N. Deeter, “Domain effects in Faraday effect sensors based on iron garnets,” Appl. Opt. 34, 655–658 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fudo, H.

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

Grattan, K. T. V.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inokuchi, S.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishiko, D.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.

Ishizuka, S.

S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.

N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

Itoh, N.

S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.

N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

Jackson, D. A.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, O.

O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Katsukawa, H.

H. Katsukawa, S. Yokoi, “Optical current transducer with bulk type Bi12SiO20 Faraday sensor for power systems,” Opt. Rev. 4, 50–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, K.

K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducers using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” Opt. Rev. 4, 38–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, R. A.

R. Wolfe, R. A. Lieberman, “Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on domain wall motion in garnet film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1733–1735 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Milián Bon, S.

M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, H.

S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.

Mori, H.

Ning, Y. N.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, T.

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

Numata, T.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, “Magneto-optic sensors based on iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4113–4117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Day, K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, “Fundamental and problems of fiber current sensors,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 124–129.

N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

Rose, A. H.

K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, “Magneto-optic sensors based on iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4113–4117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Day, K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, “Fundamental and problems of fiber current sensors,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 124–129.

Sakurai, Y.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Sato, I. Sone, “Development of bulk-optic current sensor using glass ring type Faraday cells,” Opt. Rev. 4, 35–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sone, I.

T. Sato, I. Sone, “Development of bulk-optic current sensor using glass ring type Faraday cells,” Opt. Rev. 4, 35–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaike, H.

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vella-Coleiro, G. P.

G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Venard, W. B.

G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

Wang, Z. P.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

R. Wolfe, R. A. Lieberman, “Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on domain wall motion in garnet film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1733–1735 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

Yao, M.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, S.

H. Katsukawa, S. Yokoi, “Optical current transducer with bulk type Bi12SiO20 Faraday sensor for power systems,” Opt. Rev. 4, 50–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, Y.

N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Wolfe, R. A. Lieberman, “Fiber optic magnetic field sensor based on domain wall motion in garnet film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1733–1735 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (7)

T. Numata, H. Tanaike, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, “Magneto-optic sensors based on iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4113–4117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in novel scheme of magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5393–5395 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using Bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 31, 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Vella-Coleiro, W. B. Venard, R. Wolfe, “New method for routine measurement of coercivity in magnetic bubble films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 625–627 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Deeter, S. Milián Bon, G. W. Day, “Novel bulk iron garnets for magneto-optic magnetic field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4464–4466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Power Delivery (1)

Emerging technologies working group and fiber optic sensors working group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 9, 1778–1788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Kamada, H. Minemoto, N. Itoh, “Magneto-optical properties of (BiGdY)3Fe5O12 for optical magnetic field sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 6801–6803 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (4)

K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducers using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” Opt. Rev. 4, 38–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, I. Sone, “Development of bulk-optic current sensor using glass ring type Faraday cells,” Opt. Rev. 4, 35–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katsukawa, S. Yokoi, “Optical current transducer with bulk type Bi12SiO20 Faraday sensor for power systems,” Opt. Rev. 4, 50–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, “Optical fiber sensors using garnet crystal for power distribution fields,” Opt. Rev. 4, 45–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097–3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. W. Day, K. B. Rochford, A. H. Rose, “Fundamental and problems of fiber current sensors,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 124–129.

N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Commercial current sensor activity in Japan,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 92–95.

H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, N. Itoh, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Ishizuka, “A lens-free and mirror-free fiber integrated optical magnetic field sensor,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Advanced Sensing Photonics (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Sapporo, 1996), pp. 642–645.

The accuracy class required for current transformers is based on the following standards. (in Japanese): (1) Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JIS C) 1731 Instrument Transformer (for standard and common measuring instruments), (2) JEC-1201 Instrument Transformer (for protective relay).

N. Itoh, H. Yamada, S. Ishizuka, T. Nishiyama, H. Fudo, M. Wada, “Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets for fiber optic current sensors,” in Technical Digest of the Eleventh Sensor Symposium (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 83–86.

N. Itoh, K. B. Rochford, H. Minemoto, S. Ishizuka, “High frequency response of optical magnetic field sensors using rare-earth iron garnet films,” in Technical Digest of the Thirteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of Korea, Kyongju, to be published).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an OCT that uses an optical magnetic-field sensor and a magnetic core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of sensitivity on temperature at 50 Oe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnetic domain pattern of BiRIG film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of optical magnetic-field sensor probe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Assembly process of optical magnetic-field sensor probe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and calculated linearity error of sensor output.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Total distortion factor of optical magnetic-field sensor probe.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup of current sensors: (a) current probe, (b) OCT using probe.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio for OCT and current probe.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Modulation factor of two types of OCT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Linearity error of two types of OCT.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Isolation ratio against current flowing outside OCT.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of BiRIG Films for Optical Magnetic-Field Sensors at a Wavelength of 880 nma

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