Abstract

The normal-incidence efficiencies of two 4800-grooves/mm ruled replica gratings, one with a dual-bandpass molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating and the other with a gold coating, were measured by use of synchrotron radiation in the 125–325-Å wavelength region. The peak reflectance of the multilayer coating was 22% in the first Bragg order near 235 Å and 28% in the second Bragg order near 126 Å. The peak efficiency of the multilayer grating was 2.6% in the first diffraction order near 225 Å and 0.3% in the second diffraction order near 125 Å. The efficiencies of the multilayer grating were much higher than the corresponding efficiencies of the gold grating. The characterization of the surfaces of the gratings by atomic force microscopy indicated rms microroughness values in the 5–18-µm-1 frequency range of 12–20 Å for the multilayer grating and 22–32 Å for the gold grating. Both gratings had bumpy surface features larger than the nominal groove height. The rather large surface roughness and groove irregularities had a detrimental effect on the grating efficiencies.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.
  2. T. Harada, H. Sakuma, K. Takahashi, T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Kita, “Design of a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6803–6810 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 28–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4896 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
  9. L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis for relief gratings working in the soft x-ray and XUV region by the integral equation method,” in X-Ray and UV Detectors, R. B. Hoover, M. W. Tate, eds., Proc. SPIE2278, 168–172 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4896 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Chernov, B. C.

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Goray, L. I.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis for relief gratings working in the soft x-ray and XUV region by the integral equation method,” in X-Ray and UV Detectors, R. B. Hoover, M. W. Tate, eds., Proc. SPIE2278, 168–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Hara, H.

T. Harada, H. Sakuma, K. Takahashi, T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Kita, “Design of a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6803–6810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.

Harada, T.

T. Harada, H. Sakuma, K. Takahashi, T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Kita, “Design of a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6803–6810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

Kita, T.

Kowalski, M. P.

Rife, J. C.

Sadeghi, H. R.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, H.

Seely, J. F.

Takahashi, K.

Watanabe, T.

T. Harada, H. Sakuma, K. Takahashi, T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Kita, “Design of a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6803–6810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.

Appl. Opt.

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.

L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis for relief gratings working in the soft x-ray and XUV region by the integral equation method,” in X-Ray and UV Detectors, R. B. Hoover, M. W. Tate, eds., Proc. SPIE2278, 168–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of the multilayer grating. The vertical scale was expanded to show the texture of the groove pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflectances of the multilayer-coated Mirror 1 and Mirror 2 in (a) the second Bragg order and (b) the first Bragg order wavelength regions. The calculated reflectances of the two mirrors in (c) the second Bragg order and (d) the first Bragg order wavelength regions. The angles of incidence are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Efficiency of the multilayer grating measured at an angle of incidence of 10° and wavelengths of (a) 125 Å and (b) 225 Å. (c) The efficiency of the gold grating measured at an angle of incidence of 10° and a wavelength of 225 Å. The inside (m > 0) and outside (m < 0) diffraction orders are identified.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak efficiencies of (a) the multilayer grating and (b) the gold grating measured at an angle of incidence of 10°. (c) The calculated efficiency of the gold grating at an angle of incidence of 10°. The diffraction orders are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured efficiency of the multilayer grating in the -2 diffraction order and at an angle of incidence of 6°.

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