Abstract

A ground-based remote sounding instrument that uses a length-modulated radiometer to measure the total atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) column has been built. Measurements made in Toronto during August and September of 1994 showed average CO concentrations of 125 to 150 parts per billion in volume (ppbv, parts in 109). Similar measurements made in October at a rural site 80 km north of Toronto showed concentrations of approximately 100 ppbv. The latter measurements are shown to agree with other simultaneous ground- and satellite-based measurements. This instrument is an advanced prototype of the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  9. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

J.-F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16455–16490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. E.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Becker, E.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, G.

J.-F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16455–16490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, G. P.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brunke, E. G.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brunke, E.-G.

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Casas, J. C.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M. T.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E. P.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Connor, B. J.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Connors, V. S.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Davis, G. R.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Demoulin, P.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickerson, R. R.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dlugokencky, E. J.

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dodderidge, B. G.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doddridge, B. G.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

B. T. Tolton, J. R. Drummond, “Characterization of the length-modulated radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5409–5420 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Dzhola, A. V.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space, Volume I. The Sun, NASA Ref. Pub. 1224 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989).

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Fast, H.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, G. L.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Gormsen, B. B.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Grechko, E. I.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hannigan, J. W.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, W. D.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Holland, J. A.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Holland, J. Z.

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, J. S.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hypes, W. D.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jones, N. B.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P.

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kioke, M.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kliche, D. V.

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lam, K. S.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lang, P. M.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. A.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mankin, W. G.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masarie, K. A.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, T.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, J. C.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

McElroy, M. B.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Merrill, J. T.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mittiermeier, R. L.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moody, J. L.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morales-Morales, R.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.-F.

J.-F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16455–16490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nolf, S.

V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Norton, R. H.

C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space, Volume I. The Sun, NASA Ref. Pub. 1224 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Notholt, J.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novelli, P. C.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Callaghan, F. G.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Parrish, D. D.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pesket, G. D.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Pougatchev, N. S.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poulida, O.

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prather, M. J.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Reichle, H. G.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Rhoads, K. P.

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roulet, N.

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

Saylor, M. S.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scheel, H. E.

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sherrill, R. T.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sladkovic, R.

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steele, L. P.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Vol. III, pp. 137–197.
[CrossRef]

Tolton, B. T.

Toon, G. C.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trainer, M.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallio, H. A.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wardell, R. G.

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Warshawsky, M. S.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, J. G.

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Welch, R. M.

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yee, J. E.

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yurganov, L. N.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Geophys. Res.

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16455–16490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Vol. III, pp. 137–197.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).

C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space, Volume I. The Sun, NASA Ref. Pub. 1224 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, NOAA Pub. NOAA-S/T76-1562 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a LMR demonstrating the principle of gas path-length modification. As the rotors rotate, the gas path length through the correlation cell is modulated between A and A–B. The compensator rotor is driven such that the thickness of rotor that the radiation passes through remains constant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configurations of the ground-based LMR instrument: (a) calibration, (b) remote sounding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission of the narrow-bandpass filter used in this study. Also shown are the calculated absorption spectra of a vertical path through the atmosphere for (b) CO, (c) CH4, (d) H2O, and (e) all three combined.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Segment of the synthesized solar source function, representing the intensity of solar radiation incident on the top of the Earth’s atmosphere. This source function was used in the retrieval of CO column concentrations from the ground-based LMR instrument. Also shown are the positions and strengths (at 296 K) of CO lines in this region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal measured by the ground-based LMR instrument (S inst) as a function of the mixing ratio of CO in the atmosphere, for solar zenith angles ranging from 0° to 80°, in 10° steps. (b) Sensitivity of the ground-based LMR instrument to changes in the atmospheric column of CO: the change in S inst per ppbv of atmospheric CO, as a function of the solar zenith angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contribution function of the ground-based LMR instrument: the change in S inst in each 1-km shell of the atmosphere, for solar zenith angles (ϕ) ranging from 0° to 80°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contribution function of the ground-based LMR instrument for atmospheres containing (a) CO only, (b) CH4 and H2O only, and (c) CO, CH4 and H2O, for solar zenith angles of 0° and 70°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensitivity function of the ground-based LMR instrument: the change in S inst for a 1-ppbv change in the CO concentration in each 1-km shell of the atmosphere.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitivity function of the ground-based LMR instrument: the change in S inst for a 1 molecule/cm2 change in the CO density in each 1-km shell of the atmosphere.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sensitivity of the ground-based LMR instrument to interference caused by CH4 in the atmospheric column: the change in S inst resulting from a 0.1-ppmv change in the atmospheric CH4 concentration, as a function of the solar zenith angle (ϕ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sensitivity of the ground-based LMR instrument to interference caused by H2O in the atmospheric column: the change in S inst resulting from a 1% change in the relative humidity, as a function of the solar zenith angle (ϕ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurements of the atmospheric CO column made by the ground-based LMR instrument in downtown Toronto (43.6 °N × 79.4 °W) on five days in the fall of 1994; (a) 22 August 1994, (b) 23 August 1994, (c) 11 September 1994, (d) 18 September 1994, (e) 20 September 1994.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measurements of the atmospheric CO column made by the ground-based LMR instrument at CARE near Egbert, Ontario (44.23 °N × 79.78 °W) on five days in the fall of 1994: (a) 2 October 1994, (b) 3 October 1994, (c) 6 October 1994, (d) 7 October 1994, (e) 12 October 1994.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Measurements of the atmospheric CO column made at CARE in Egbert, Ontario by the AES FTS, MAPS, and the ground-based LMR instrument. The dimensions of the symbols for the ground-based LMR instrument represent the time of measurement in the horizontal and ±1 σ in the vertical. (b) MAPS data, shown in these blowups, represent the average midtropospheric CO concentrations acquired within a 5° latitude × 5° longitude box centered on Egbert. The error bars on the MAPS data represent ±1 σ.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Average midtropospheric CO concentrations measured by MAPS, acquired within a 5° latitude × 5° longitude box centered on Egbert, in October 1994. Shown are the tracks of the MAPS over southern Ontario on 2, 3, 6, and 7 October 1994.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of the normalized contribution functions of the ground-based instrument (at solar zenith angles of 0°, 30°, 50°, and 70°) to that of MAPS (for a 50-ppbv CO-only atmosphere; adapted from Ref. 3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effects of Interfering Atmospheric Species on the Retrieval of the Atmospheric CO Column Concentration by the Ground-Based LMR

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Savg=G ν1ν2 Iνfilνs1ν+s2ν2dν,
Sdiff=G ν1ν2 Iνfilνs1ν-s2νdν,
I0ν=ISunνatmν,
Sinst=SdiffSavg=2 ν1ν2 ISunνatmνfilνs1ν-s2νdνν1ν2 ISunνatmνfilνs1ν+s2νdν.
Sinst0=Sinst+0CFzdz.
ΔSinst0=0SFzΔρCOzdz,

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