Abstract

We report on the development of a multiwavelength speckle pattern shearing interferometer for the determination of two-dimensional strain distributions. This system is based on simultaneous illumination of the object with three diode lasers that emit at different wavelengths between 800 and 850 nm. Wavelength separation and image acquisition were performed with a special optical arrangement, including narrow-bandpass filters and three black-and-white cameras. The shearographic camera with a variable shearing element, in combination with the appropriate illumination geometry, permitted us to isolate all six displacement derivatives from phase-stepped fringe patterns. The optical system and the measurement procedure were validated with two different experiments. First, the shearographic sensor head was used for the determination of in-plane displacements, and, second, in-plane strain distributions of an aluminum block caused by temperature expansion were measured.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography: a new optical method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 21, 391–395 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ettemeyer, “Shearografie—ein optisches Verfahren zur zerstörungsfreien Werkstoff prüfung,” Tech. Messen 58, 247–252 (1991).
  3. Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 161–182 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Y. Hung, J. Q. Wang, “Dual-beam phase shift shearography for measurements of in-plane strains,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 403–413 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. A. Aebischer, S. Waldner, “Strain distributions made visible with image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 407–420 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Patorski, A. Olszak, “Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2010–2015 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. A. Aebischer, S. Waldner, “Strain distributions made visible with image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 407–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Patorski, A. Olszak, “Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2010–2015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Y. Y. Hung, J. Q. Wang, “Dual-beam phase shift shearography for measurements of in-plane strains,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 403–413 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 161–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Ettemeyer, “Shearografie—ein optisches Verfahren zur zerstörungsfreien Werkstoff prüfung,” Tech. Messen 58, 247–252 (1991).

1982 (1)

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography: a new optical method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 21, 391–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, H. A.

H. A. Aebischer, S. Waldner, “Strain distributions made visible with image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 407–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ettemeyer, A.

A. Ettemeyer, “Shearografie—ein optisches Verfahren zur zerstörungsfreien Werkstoff prüfung,” Tech. Messen 58, 247–252 (1991).

Hung, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 161–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, J. Q. Wang, “Dual-beam phase shift shearography for measurements of in-plane strains,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 403–413 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography: a new optical method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 21, 391–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, G.

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olszak, A.

K. Patorski, A. Olszak, “Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2010–2015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patorski, K.

K. Patorski, A. Olszak, “Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2010–2015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuth, M.

W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steinchen, W.

W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waldner, S.

H. A. Aebischer, S. Waldner, “Strain distributions made visible with image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 407–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Q.

Y. Y. Hung, J. Q. Wang, “Dual-beam phase shift shearography for measurements of in-plane strains,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 403–413 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. X.

W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Measurement (1)

L. X. Yang, W. Steinchen, M. Schuth, G. Kupfer, “Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Measurement 16, 149–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography: a new optical method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 21, 391–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Patorski, A. Olszak, “Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2010–2015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (3)

Y. Y. Hung, “Shearography for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 161–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, J. Q. Wang, “Dual-beam phase shift shearography for measurements of in-plane strains,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 403–413 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Aebischer, S. Waldner, “Strain distributions made visible with image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 407–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strain (1)

W. Steinchen, L. X. Yang, M. Schuth, “TV shearography for measuring 3D strains,” Strain 32, 49–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Messen (1)

A. Ettemeyer, “Shearografie—ein optisches Verfahren zur zerstörungsfreien Werkstoff prüfung,” Tech. Messen 58, 247–252 (1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional shearographic sensor including 3 b/w CCD cameras: M2, tilting mirror; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; F, filters; λ/4, quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Arrangement of lasers L1–L3 and CCD lens of the shearographic camera projected on the x, y plane. The x, y plane is identical to the front surface of the test object.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Device for displacement measurements. An image shearing in the positive y direction was applied so that the lower bar of the image from mirror M1 (dashed line) and the upper bar from the image of mirror M2 (solid line) overlap on the CCD cameras.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Result of a y-displacement measurement of the upper bar. The fringes shown correspond to a 39-µm y displacement along a 12.1-cm-long section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aluminum block with a temperature sensor and heat resistors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Strain in the x and the y direction versus the temperature of the aluminum block. The theoretical values were derived with a thermal expansion coefficient of 23.5 ppm/°C.

Equations (5)

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ki=kCCD-kLi, |kCCD|=|kLi|=2πλ.
k1=-kx, ky, kz, k2=kx, ky, kz, k3=kx, -ky, kz.
kx, ky, kz=2πλlx0, y0, l+z0.
Δφxi=ki·xd·Δx, Δφyi=ki·yd·Δy,
Δϕxx=Δφx2-Δφx1=2kxux Δx, Δϕxy=Δφy2-Δφy1=2kxuy Δy, Δϕyx=Δφx2-Δφx3=2kyvx Δx, Δϕyy=Δφy2-Δφy3=2kyvy Δy, Δϕzx=Δφx1+Δφx3=2kzwx Δx, Δϕzy=Δφy1+Δφy3=2kzwy Δy.

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