Abstract

A high-contrast optical switch for imaging partially coherent light (∼150 times the diffraction limit) requires that it have a large angular acceptance. We describe the development of a high-speed Pockels cell that uses a thin crystal to simultaneously achieve high-contrast (greater than 1800:1) and large-angular acceptance (greater than 7 mrad for a 5-mm aperture). A KD*P crystal was used in a longitudinal-mode configuration with plasma discharges forming low-resistance, high optical transmission electrodes to couple the switching voltage. Rise times of the switched optical pulse of the order of 500 ps were observed. Characterization of the device in the near and far fields was also performed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. L. Steinmetz, T. W. Pouliot, B. C. Johnson, “Cylindrical, ring-electrode KD*P electooptic modulator,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1468–1171 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. A. Enemark, A. Gallagher, “A Pockels cell light modulator for wide angle radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 40–41 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion studies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5312–5325 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Deniz, S. P. Obenschain, “A KrF oscillator system with uniform profiles,” Opt. Commun. 106, 113–122 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980) pp. 694–701.
  12. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 220–243.
  13. E. A. West, “Extending the field of view of KD*P electrooptic modulators,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3010–3013 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

A. V. Deniz, S. P. Obenschain, “A KrF oscillator system with uniform profiles,” Opt. Commun. 106, 113–122 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

E. A. Enemark, A. Gallagher, “A Pockels cell light modulator for wide angle radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 40–41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arinaga, S.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, L. J.

Bodner, S. E.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980) pp. 694–701.

Bui, S. T.

M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colombant, D.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Craxton, R. S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dahlburg, J. P.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deniz, A. V.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Deniz, S. P. Obenschain, “A KrF oscillator system with uniform profiles,” Opt. Commun. 106, 113–122 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DeYoreo, J. J.

Enemark, E. A.

E. A. Enemark, A. Gallagher, “A Pockels cell light modulator for wide angle radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 40–41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

E. A. Enemark, A. Gallagher, “A Pockels cell light modulator for wide angle radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 40–41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. H.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hardgrove, J.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henesian, M. A.

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jin, M. S.

M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, Y.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klapisch, M.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lehecka, T.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lehmberg, R. H.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, N.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mostovych, A. N.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S. P.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Deniz, S. P. Obenschain, “A KrF oscillator system with uniform profiles,” Opt. Commun. 106, 113–122 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pawley, C. J.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pouliot, T. W.

Pronko, M. S.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, M. A.

Roberts, D.

Schmitt, A. J.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serlin, V.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J. D.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Short, R. W.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skeldon, M. D.

M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soures, J. M.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, J. A.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, L. L.

Sullivan, C. A.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

West, E. A.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980) pp. 694–701.

Woods, B.

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 220–243.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 220–243.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Deniz, S. P. Obenschain, “A KrF oscillator system with uniform profiles,” Opt. Commun. 106, 113–122 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF Laser Facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. A. Enemark, A. Gallagher, “A Pockels cell light modulator for wide angle radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 40–41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. D. Skeldon, M. S. Jin, D. J. Smith, S. T. Bui, “Performance of longitudinal mode KD*P Pockels cells with transparent conductive coatings,” in Solid State Laser II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1410, 116–124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980) pp. 694–701.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 220–243.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic of the plasma electrode Pockels cell showing the geometric orientation of the plasma electrodes relative to the KD*P crystal; the optic axis is perpendicular to the crystal assembly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plasma pulser electrical schematic. The connection to the Pockels cell is shown in Fig. 1 where transformers T2 and T3 also appear.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plasma electrode (a) voltage and (b) current for typical operating conditions with 120-Torr Ne.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the experimental arrangement. L1–L4, lenses; VPD, vacuum photodiode; TFP, thin-film polarizers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fast electrical pulse applied to the Pockels cell where the voltage was adjusted for maximum optical transmission (crystal V π plus losses). (b) Corresponding optical pulse showing additional modulation on the nominally square shape.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plots of the Pockels cell transmission at various time delays with no switching voltage applied. The horizontal and vertical bars are due to stress-induced birefringence caused by acoustic waves propagating through the crystal transverse to the optic axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pockels cell energy contrast as a function of timing between the plasma electrode trigger and the laser pulse.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical near-field image of the Pockels cell for a 4-ns-duration pulse. The maximum variation in the uniformity over the central 90% of the aperture is ±15%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Typical far-field (focal) profile for the Pockels cell. The long scale length nonuniformity in both (b) the input light and (c) the 4-ns sliced pulse show good agreement which suggests that the Pockels cell produces very little phase nonuniformity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical focal profile for the Pockels cell when operated at approximately 10% of V π.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Decreasing crystal thickness reduces phase nonuniformity that is due to birefringence and crystal imperfections at low switching voltage.

Equations (3)

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θ = d f 7   mrad ,
N d θ λ / D = dD f λ ,
variation   =   max   -   min average .

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