Abstract

Intense amplified spontaneous emission is generated in generally axial directions in a recombining uniform Z pinch. This effect allows the generation of highly efficient soft x-ray beams, including the intense xenon-band emission at 134 Å, of interest for extreme ultraviolet lithography. We discuss the characteristics of this source, including optimization of the xenon–helium mix and measurements of source size, brightness, and positional and amplitude stability. The issues involved in increasing power to the lithography class by an increase in the repetition rate are discussed. The life and operating costs of a lithography source are considered.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. W. McGeoch is preparing the following paper for publication in Phys. Rev. E: “Supra-Planckian O VI spectrum from a recombining Z-pinch.”
  2. G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.
  3. J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Pearlman, J. C. Riordan, “X-ray lithography using a pulsed plasma source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1190–1193 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. W. McGeoch, “Plasma x-ray source,” U.S. patent5,504,795 (2April1996).
  7. M. W. McGeoch, “Progress on an x-ray laser source at 135 A,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 84–88.
  8. E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. N. Weinberg, A. Fisher, “A small scale Z-pinch device as an intense soft x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 242, 535–538 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Jones, D. R. Kania, “Temporally and spatially resolved x-ray emission from a collapsing-gas-shell Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1993–1996 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Menown, C. A. Pirrie, N. S. Nicholls, “Advanced thyratrons as switches for the nineties,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Power Modulator Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1986), pp. 69–73.

1991

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

I. N. Weinberg, A. Fisher, “A small scale Z-pinch device as an intense soft x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 242, 535–538 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. A. Jones, D. R. Kania, “Temporally and spatially resolved x-ray emission from a collapsing-gas-shell Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1993–1996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. S. Pearlman, J. C. Riordan, “X-ray lithography using a pulsed plasma source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1190–1193 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, J.

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernardez, L. J.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Bleach, R. D.

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burkhalter, P. G.

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Challis, C. D.

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, J.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dangor, A. E.

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ettinger, Y.

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feder, R.

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A.

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Weinberg, A. Fisher, “A small scale Z-pinch device as an intense soft x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 242, 535–538 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Frank, K.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, R.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Hartmann, W.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, D. R. Kania, “Temporally and spatially resolved x-ray emission from a collapsing-gas-shell Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1993–1996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kania, D. R.

L. A. Jones, D. R. Kania, “Temporally and spatially resolved x-ray emission from a collapsing-gas-shell Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1993–1996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenz, K. D.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Kubiak, G. D.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Kuhn, H.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lunney, J. G.

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McGeoch, M. W.

M. W. McGeoch, “Plasma x-ray source,” U.S. patent5,504,795 (2April1996).

M. W. McGeoch, “Progress on an x-ray laser source at 135 A,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 84–88.

Menown, H.

H. Menown, C. A. Pirrie, N. S. Nicholls, “Advanced thyratrons as switches for the nineties,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Power Modulator Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1986), pp. 69–73.

Nagel, D. J.

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nave, G.

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, N. S.

H. Menown, C. A. Pirrie, N. S. Nicholls, “Advanced thyratrons as switches for the nineties,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Power Modulator Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1986), pp. 69–73.

O’Connell, D. J.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Pearlman, J. S.

J. S. Pearlman, J. C. Riordan, “X-ray lithography using a pulsed plasma source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1190–1193 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pirrie, C. A.

H. Menown, C. A. Pirrie, N. S. Nicholls, “Advanced thyratrons as switches for the nineties,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Power Modulator Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1986), pp. 69–73.

Rahman, H. U.

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Riordan, J. C.

J. S. Pearlman, J. C. Riordan, “X-ray lithography using a pulsed plasma source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1190–1193 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rostoker, N.

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ruden, E.

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. L.

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shiloh, J.

J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stetter, M.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tkotz, R.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Todd, A. M. M.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

Wagner, T.

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, I. N.

I. N. Weinberg, A. Fisher, “A small scale Z-pinch device as an intense soft x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 242, 535–538 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Bailey, Y. Ettinger, A. Fisher, R. Feder, “Evaluation of the gas puff Z pinch as an X-ray lithography and microscopy source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 33–35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Hartmann, H. Bauer, J. Christiansen, K. Frank, H. Kuhn, M. Stetter, R. Tkotz, T. Wagner, “Homogeneous cylindrical plasma source for short-wavelength laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2619–2621 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. D. Bleach, P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, R. L. Schneider, “The ultraviolet emission from gas puff plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1273–1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Nave, C. D. Challis, A. E. Dangor, J. G. Lunney, “Soft x-ray spectra from a gas puff Z pinch,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3385–3390 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Ruden, H. U. Rahman, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Stability enhancement of a low initial density hollow gas puff Z-pinch by e-beam preionization,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1311–1316 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

J. S. Pearlman, J. C. Riordan, “X-ray lithography using a pulsed plasma source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1190–1193 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

I. N. Weinberg, A. Fisher, “A small scale Z-pinch device as an intense soft x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 242, 535–538 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. A. Jones, D. R. Kania, “Temporally and spatially resolved x-ray emission from a collapsing-gas-shell Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1993–1996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shiloh, A. Fisher, N. Rostoker, “Z pinch of a gas jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 515–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Menown, C. A. Pirrie, N. S. Nicholls, “Advanced thyratrons as switches for the nineties,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Power Modulator Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1986), pp. 69–73.

M. W. McGeoch is preparing the following paper for publication in Phys. Rev. E: “Supra-Planckian O VI spectrum from a recombining Z-pinch.”

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, A. M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 66–71.

M. W. McGeoch, “Plasma x-ray source,” U.S. patent5,504,795 (2April1996).

M. W. McGeoch, “Progress on an x-ray laser source at 135 A,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 84–88.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Z-pinch apparatus for tests of xenon emission. Inset: axial visible light image of rf discharge, anode removed. ID, inside diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimization of 134-Å band versus a Xe–He mix. Pressure is varied to obtain optimum at 134 Å, with 240 J stored in each case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity in a 5-Å band centered at 134 Å versus stored energy. Pinch gas pressure varied for optimum 134-Å intensity at each point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Xenon band spectrum from 4-cm pinch in the 30–320-Å range, optimized for emission at 134 Å (240 J stored; mix is 25% Xe and 75% He).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Edge shadow at 134 Å fitted to a Gaussian source intensity profile (160 J stored; mix is 25% Xe and 75% He).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Superposition of 30 edge scans of the 134-Å band normalized in amplitude at position = 0.54 cm (240 J stored; 25% Xe and 75% He).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Expansion of the central part of Fig. 6 to show the statistical distribution of edge positions more clearly.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Current waveform for 25% Xe and 75% He pinch at the optimum gas pressure for 134-Å emission (240 J stored).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Illustration of two-pulse exposure stitching, taking an arbitrary pulse with error function edge profiles and a circular central profile with 5% droop. An exposure uniformity of ±0.4% is achieved.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Drawing of the pinch region of a 100-Hz, 134-Å lithography source. The gas mix is introduced continuously by way of a gap between the anode and the ceramic pinch liner.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scale drawing of the xenon Z-pinch lithography source system.

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