Abstract

Multilayer thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales produce a colorful iridescence from reflected sunlight. Because of optical phenomena, changes in the angle of incidence of light and the viewing angle of an observer result in shifts in the color of butterfly wings. Colors ranging from green to purple, which are due to nonplanar specular reflection, can be observed on Papilio blumei iridescent scales. This refers to a phenomenon in which the curved surface patterns in the thin-film structure cause the specular component of the reflected light to be directed at various angles while affecting the spectral reflectivity at the same time by changing the optical path length through the structure. We determined the spectral reflectivities of P. blumei iridescent scales numerically by using models of a butterfly scale microstructure and experimentally by using a microscale-reflectance spectrometer. The numerical models accurately predict the shifts in spectral reflectivity observed experimentally.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. N. Miaoulis, P. Y. Wong, B. D. Heilman, “The effect of microscale and macroscale patterns on the radiative heating of multilayer thin-film structures,” in Microscale Heat Transfer, Vol. 291 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1994), pp. 27–34.
  2. H. Ghiradella, “Structure of iridescent lepidopteran scales: variations on several themes,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77, 637–645 (1984).
  3. B. D. Heilman, “Butterfly thin-films: thermoregulatory structures which control solar radiation absorption,” M. S. thesis (Tufts University, Medford, Mass., 1994).
  4. H. Ghiradella, “Structure and development of iridescent lepidopteran scales: the papilionidae as a showcase family,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78, 254–264 (1985).
  5. P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).
  6. J. B. Hoppert, “Numerical modeling of radiative properties of patterned wafers with sub-micron features,” in Rapid Thermal and Integrated Processing V, Vol. 429 of the Materials Research Society Proceedings Series (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 51–56.
  7. P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, “Microscale reflectance spectrometry of thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales,” in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, Vol. 322 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 5–10.
  8. F. P. Incropera, D. P. De Witt, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), p. 693.

1985 (1)

H. Ghiradella, “Structure and development of iridescent lepidopteran scales: the papilionidae as a showcase family,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78, 254–264 (1985).

1984 (1)

H. Ghiradella, “Structure of iridescent lepidopteran scales: variations on several themes,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77, 637–645 (1984).

De Witt, D. P.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. De Witt, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), p. 693.

Ghiradella, H.

H. Ghiradella, “Structure and development of iridescent lepidopteran scales: the papilionidae as a showcase family,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78, 254–264 (1985).

H. Ghiradella, “Structure of iridescent lepidopteran scales: variations on several themes,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77, 637–645 (1984).

Heilman, B. D.

I. N. Miaoulis, P. Y. Wong, B. D. Heilman, “The effect of microscale and macroscale patterns on the radiative heating of multilayer thin-film structures,” in Microscale Heat Transfer, Vol. 291 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1994), pp. 27–34.

B. D. Heilman, “Butterfly thin-films: thermoregulatory structures which control solar radiation absorption,” M. S. thesis (Tufts University, Medford, Mass., 1994).

Hoppert, J. B.

J. B. Hoppert, “Numerical modeling of radiative properties of patterned wafers with sub-micron features,” in Rapid Thermal and Integrated Processing V, Vol. 429 of the Materials Research Society Proceedings Series (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 51–56.

Incropera, F. P.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. De Witt, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), p. 693.

Mann, S.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).

Miaoulis, I. N.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, “Microscale reflectance spectrometry of thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales,” in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, Vol. 322 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 5–10.

I. N. Miaoulis, P. Y. Wong, B. D. Heilman, “The effect of microscale and macroscale patterns on the radiative heating of multilayer thin-film structures,” in Microscale Heat Transfer, Vol. 291 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1994), pp. 27–34.

Tada, H.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).

Wong, P. Y.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, “Microscale reflectance spectrometry of thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales,” in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, Vol. 322 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 5–10.

I. N. Miaoulis, P. Y. Wong, B. D. Heilman, “The effect of microscale and macroscale patterns on the radiative heating of multilayer thin-film structures,” in Microscale Heat Transfer, Vol. 291 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1994), pp. 27–34.

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. (2)

H. Ghiradella, “Structure and development of iridescent lepidopteran scales: the papilionidae as a showcase family,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78, 254–264 (1985).

H. Ghiradella, “Structure of iridescent lepidopteran scales: variations on several themes,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77, 637–645 (1984).

Other (6)

B. D. Heilman, “Butterfly thin-films: thermoregulatory structures which control solar radiation absorption,” M. S. thesis (Tufts University, Medford, Mass., 1994).

I. N. Miaoulis, P. Y. Wong, B. D. Heilman, “The effect of microscale and macroscale patterns on the radiative heating of multilayer thin-film structures,” in Microscale Heat Transfer, Vol. 291 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1994), pp. 27–34.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, H. Tada, S. Mann, “Selective multilayer thin-film development in insects,” in ASME Fundamentals of Microscale Biothermal Phenomena (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1997).

J. B. Hoppert, “Numerical modeling of radiative properties of patterned wafers with sub-micron features,” in Rapid Thermal and Integrated Processing V, Vol. 429 of the Materials Research Society Proceedings Series (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 51–56.

P. Y. Wong, I. N. Miaoulis, “Microscale reflectance spectrometry of thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales,” in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, Vol. 322 of ASME Heat Transfer Proceedings Series (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 5–10.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. De Witt, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), p. 693.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of butterfly for macroscale investigation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General architecture of a butterfly scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Papilio blumei specialization of cross sections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thin-film interference of a single wavelength of radiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of curvature of thin films on normally incident light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of a P. blumei numerical model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the macroscale illumination apparatus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of the MRS.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Color observed under different angles of view for P. blumei.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Digitally enhanced image of the P. blumei iridescent scale under normal incidence with 550-nm light, observed at normal view.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral reflectivity of P. blumei at normal incidence and normal view.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral reflectivity of P. blumei for various indices of refraction at normal incidence and normal view.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral reflectivity of P. blumei at various angles of incidence.

Equations (2)

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n effective = 1 - F n air + Fn chitin ,
ρ sample = I sample I Si   ρ Si ,

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