The conventional design of phase gratings or kinoforms with a
paraxial transmission function is restricted to the paraxial domain and
thin elements. Therefore, the design and analysis of thick
phase-relief structures require a nonparaxial theory, as given by the
Born approximation. The Born approximation is derived as an
extension of the scalar thin-element theory, which is applicable for
thick elements with large propagation angles. As an example,
general prism gratings on curved surfaces are treated.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
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