Abstract

Acrylate-based optical waveguides have been fabricated with optical loss of 0.5 dB/cm at 1300 nm by means of a new material system that ensures stable optical and mechanical properties over a wide temperature range. No increase in loss was measured after 500 h at temperatures up to 150 °C, and there was no significant increase in loss during short (<5 min) temperature excursions to 300 °C for bonding. Single-mode waveguides were fabricated with refractive indices for core and clad of 1.505 and 1.500, respectively, so that the mode field is very similar to that of single-mode silica fiber. Guides were fabricated on both planar and structured substrates of Si and GaAs as well as on substrates coated with metals and dielectrics. Fabrication involved spin coating and UV exposure to cross-link the polymer, but the substrate temperature did not exceed 180 °C. With this method guides could be fabricated on a range of substrates up to 125 cm in diameter, including those with multilayer metallization for multichip modules, providing optical interconnect capability. Microprism reflecting surfaces were fabricated in the waveguides to couple light out normal to the substrate. All the processing was compatible with normal semiconductor fabrication.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1995 (1)

Y. Hida, S. Imamura, “Influence of temperature and humidity change on optical waveguide circuits composed of deuterated and fluorinated methacrylate polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6416–6422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

S. Ando, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, “Perfluorinated polymers for optical waveguides,” Chemtech 24(12), 20–27 (1994).

G. R. Möhlmann, “Polymeric optochips: splitters, switches and modulators,” Synthetic Metals 67, 77–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, K. Kato, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, T. Matsunaga, “Improved 8 × 8 integrated optical matrix switch using silica-base planar waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1597–1606 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

B. P. Pai, “Guided-wave optics on silicon: physics, technology and status,” Prog. Opt. 32, 3–59 (1993).

R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Laser Technol. 25, 347–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Walker, K. Balasubramanian, W. M. Reichert, “Low loss DEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 49, 2147–2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Electro-optic functional waveguide using new polymer p-NAn-PVA for integrated photonic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378–1381 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. W. Beesom, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, J. T. Yardley, “Photochemical laser writing of polymeric optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1055–1057 (1991).

1990 (4)

A. F. Garito, J. W. Wu, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, “Non-linear optical polymers: challenges and opportunities in photonics,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 173, 467–486 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, “Integrated optic adiabatic devices on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 556 (1990).

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Weidman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

S. V. Kapoor, C. D. Panday, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathy, V. L. Gupta, “Fabrication and characterization of polyester and acrylic polyurethane,” Appl. Opt. 28, 37–39 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Yamata, H. Terui, M. Kobayashi, “Optical interconnects using a silica-based waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1281–1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. H. Hartman, “Digital high speed interconnects: a study of the optical alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computers,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1084 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. E. Gismondi, “Influence of acrylate monomers on the resistance of UV-cured coatings to UV-induced degradation,” J. Radiat. Curing 11, 14–18 (1984).

1981 (1)

R. A. LieBerman, “Photoinitiator effectiveness in curing epoxy acrylate coating formulations,” J. Radiat. Curing 8, 13–24 (1981).

1980 (2)

T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Eicher, C. P. Herz, I. Naito, W. Schnabel, “Laser flash photolysis investigation of primary processes in the sensitized polymerization of vinyl monomers IV: experiments with hydroxy alkylphenones,” J. Photochem. 12, 225–234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

C. P. Herz, J. Eicher, “Neue photoinitiatoren zur UV-strahlungshärtung,” Farbe Lack 85, 933 (1979).

J. T. Boyd, C. M. Chuang, C. L. Chen, “Fabrication of optical waveguide taper couplers utilizing SiO2,” Appl. Opt. 18, 506–509 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, J. Fisher, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

S. Ando, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, “Perfluorinated polymers for optical waveguides,” Chemtech 24(12), 20–27 (1994).

Baker, G. L.

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

D. S. Walker, K. Balasubramanian, W. M. Reichert, “Low loss DEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 49, 2147–2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beccue, S.

M. K. Kilcoyne, K. D. Pedrott, S. Beccue, W. Haber, “Optical signal interconnection between GaAs integrated circuit chips,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 148–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beesom, K. W.

K. W. Beesom, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, J. T. Yardley, “Photochemical laser writing of polymeric optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1055–1057 (1991).

Bellerby, R.

M. F. Grant, R. Bellerby, S. Day, G. J. Cannell, M. Nelson, “Self-aligned multiple fibre coupling for silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual European Fibre Optic Communications and Local Area Network Conference, A. Harmer, ed., pp. 269–272 (1991).

Bendett, M. P.

T. A. Lane, M. P. Bendett, C. T. Sullivan, J. P. G. Bristow, “Digital system application of optical interconnections,” in Fiber Optic Datacom and Computer Networks, J. Pazaris, J. E. Hayes, eds., Proc. SPIE991, 42–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Binkley, E.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, S. P. Ermer, J. F. Valley, J. Kenney, E. Binkley, “Organic electro-optical devices for optical interconnection,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE1560, 388–399 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Binkley, E. S.

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer materials and devices for optical interconnect applications,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. SPIE1215, 253–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bouadma, N.

N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boulet, P.

N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

Bristow, J. P. G.

T. A. Lane, M. P. Bendett, C. T. Sullivan, J. P. G. Bristow, “Digital system application of optical interconnections,” in Fiber Optic Datacom and Computer Networks, J. Pazaris, J. E. Hayes, eds., Proc. SPIE991, 42–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. G. Bristow, C. T. Sullivan, A. Guha, J. Ehramijian, A. Husain, “Polymer waveguide-based optical backplane for fine-grained computing,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 103–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cannell, G. J.

M. F. Grant, R. Bellerby, S. Day, G. J. Cannell, M. Nelson, “Self-aligned multiple fibre coupling for silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual European Fibre Optic Communications and Local Area Network Conference, A. Harmer, ed., pp. 269–272 (1991).

Chen, C. L.

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Laser Technol. 25, 347–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D. A.

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, ed., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A technology for optical interconnections based on multichip integration,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 122–127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C. M.

Crow, J. D.

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical waveguiding in polyimide,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering III, R. T. Kersten, ed., Proc. SPIE651, 102–107 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. L.

R. L. Davis, S. H. Lee, “Low-loss waveguides on silicon substrates for photonic circuits,” in Optical Technology for Signal Processing Systems, M. P. Bendett, ed., Proc. SPIE1474, 20–26 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dawar, A. L.

Day, S.

M. F. Grant, R. Bellerby, S. Day, G. J. Cannell, M. Nelson, “Self-aligned multiple fibre coupling for silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual European Fibre Optic Communications and Local Area Network Conference, A. Harmer, ed., pp. 269–272 (1991).

Ehramijian, J.

J. P. G. Bristow, C. T. Sullivan, A. Guha, J. Ehramijian, A. Husain, “Polymer waveguide-based optical backplane for fine-grained computing,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 103–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eicher, J.

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J. Eicher, C. P. Herz, I. Naito, W. Schnabel, “Laser flash photolysis investigation of primary processes in the sensitized polymerization of vinyl monomers IV: experiments with hydroxy alkylphenones,” J. Photochem. 12, 225–234 (1980).
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R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical Interconnects,” in Non-Linear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, N. Peyghambarian, eds., Vol. 30 in Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 61–89.
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Applications of electro-optic polymers to optical interconnects,” in Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, J. A. Neff, ed., Proc. SPIE1563, 122–138 (1991).
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Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, “Integrated optic adiabatic devices on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 556 (1990).

Klausner, C. F.

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
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Kwock, E. W.

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N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer materials and devices for optical interconnect applications,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. SPIE1215, 253–262 (1990).
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Applications of electro-optic polymers to optical interconnects,” in Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, J. A. Neff, ed., Proc. SPIE1563, 122–138 (1991).
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A. F. Garito, J. W. Wu, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, “Non-linear optical polymers: challenges and opportunities in photonics,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 173, 467–486 (1990).
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer materials and devices for optical interconnect applications,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. SPIE1215, 253–262 (1990).
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
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R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Applications of electro-optic polymers to optical interconnects,” in Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, J. A. Neff, ed., Proc. SPIE1563, 122–138 (1991).
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K. W. Beesom, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, J. T. Yardley, “Photochemical laser writing of polymeric optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1055–1057 (1991).

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K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single mode plastic waveguide fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 88.5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 58.

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Panday, C. D.

Pedrott, K. D.

M. K. Kilcoyne, K. D. Pedrott, S. Beccue, W. Haber, “Optical signal interconnection between GaAs integrated circuit chips,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 148–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, W. M.

D. S. Walker, K. Balasubramanian, W. M. Reichert, “Low loss DEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 49, 2147–2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renard, S.

S. Valette, J. P. Jadot, P. Gidon, S. Renard, “New integrated optics structure on silicon substrate: application to optical communication and optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnections, O. D. D. Soares, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE862, 20–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, R.

H. Franke, G. Knabke, R. Reuter, “Optical waveguiding in Polyimide II,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE682, 191–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Feger, R. Reuter, H. Franke, “Factors affecting polyimide lightguide quality,” in Polymers in Information Storage Technology, K. Mittal, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 227–236.
[CrossRef]

Rychnovsky, S.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computers,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1084 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sainson, S.

N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, S.

T. Miyashita, S. Sumida, S. Sakaguchi, “Integrated optical devices based on silica waveguide technologies,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering VI, M. A. Mentzer, ed., Proc. SPIE993, 288–294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Santo, R.

J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, J. Fisher, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

S. Ando, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, “Perfluorinated polymers for optical waveguides,” Chemtech 24(12), 20–27 (1994).

Sawaki, I.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single mode plastic waveguide fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 88.5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 58.

Schlotter, N. E.

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, W.

J. Eicher, C. P. Herz, I. Naito, W. Schnabel, “Laser flash photolysis investigation of primary processes in the sensitized polymerization of vinyl monomers IV: experiments with hydroxy alkylphenones,” J. Photochem. 12, 225–234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

F. S. Hickernell, C. T. Seaton, “Channelized optical waveguides on silicon,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 164–174 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraj, R.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, “Integrated optic adiabatic devices on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 556 (1990).

Shuto, Y.

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. D.

G. R. Lalk, P. D. Smith, D. W. Emmets, D. H. Hartman, “Board level high speed photonic interconnections: recent system developments,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 123–130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, D. L.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A technology for optical interconnections based on multichip integration,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 122–127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Speth, A.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Oprysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strebel, B.

N. Keil, B. Strebel, H. Yao, J. Krauser, “Applications of optical polymer waveguide devices on future optical communication and signal processing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry and Applications II, L. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 278–287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Electro-optic functional waveguide using new polymer p-NAn-PVA for integrated photonic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378–1381 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985), Chap. 2.

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wireboard interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Lane, M. P. Bendett, C. T. Sullivan, J. P. G. Bristow, “Digital system application of optical interconnections,” in Fiber Optic Datacom and Computer Networks, J. Pazaris, J. E. Hayes, eds., Proc. SPIE991, 42–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. G. Bristow, C. T. Sullivan, A. Guha, J. Ehramijian, A. Husain, “Polymer waveguide-based optical backplane for fine-grained computing,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 103–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, S.

T. Miyashita, S. Sumida, S. Sakaguchi, “Integrated optical devices based on silica waveguide technologies,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering VI, M. A. Mentzer, ed., Proc. SPIE993, 288–294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, J. Fisher, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, J. Fisher, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

Terui, H.

Y. Yamada, M. Yamata, H. Terui, M. Kobayashi, “Optical interconnects using a silica-based waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1281–1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, S. P. Ermer, J. F. Valley, J. Kenney, E. Binkley, “Organic electro-optical devices for optical interconnection,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE1560, 388–399 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer materials and devices for optical interconnect applications,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. SPIE1215, 253–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Applications of electro-optic polymers to optical interconnects,” in Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, J. A. Neff, ed., Proc. SPIE1563, 122–138 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Trewhella, J.

J. Trewhella, M. M. Oprysko, “Total internal reflection mirrors fabricated in polymeric optical waveguides via excimer laser ablation,” in Excimer Laser Materials Processing and Beam Delivery Systems, B.P. Piwczyk, ed., Proc. SPIE1377, 64–72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, K. N.

Tsang, D. Z.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A technology for optical interconnections based on multichip integration,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 122–127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Electro-optic functional waveguide using new polymer p-NAn-PVA for integrated photonic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378–1381 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

S. Valette, J. P. Jadot, P. Gidon, S. Renard, “New integrated optics structure on silicon substrate: application to optical communication and optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnections, O. D. D. Soares, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE862, 20–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Valley, J. F.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, S. P. Ermer, J. F. Valley, J. Kenney, E. Binkley, “Organic electro-optical devices for optical interconnection,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE1560, 388–399 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Van Eck, T. E.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, S. P. Ermer, J. F. Valley, J. Kenney, E. Binkley, “Organic electro-optical devices for optical interconnection,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE1560, 388–399 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. S.

D. S. Walker, K. Balasubramanian, W. M. Reichert, “Low loss DEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 49, 2147–2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weidman, T. W.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Weidman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

A. F. Garito, J. W. Wu, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, “Non-linear optical polymers: challenges and opportunities in photonics,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 173, 467–486 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, “Guided-wave chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambrian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 164–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, M. Yamata, H. Terui, M. Kobayashi, “Optical interconnects using a silica-based waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1281–1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, “Guided-wave chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambrian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 164–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamata, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Yamata, H. Terui, M. Kobayashi, “Optical interconnects using a silica-based waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1281–1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H.

N. Keil, B. Strebel, H. Yao, J. Krauser, “Applications of optical polymer waveguide devices on future optical communication and signal processing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry and Applications II, L. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 278–287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

K. W. Beesom, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, J. T. Yardley, “Photochemical laser writing of polymeric optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1055–1057 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. W. Beesom, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, J. T. Yardley, “Photochemical laser writing of polymeric optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1055–1057 (1991).

T. Watanabe, M. Amano, M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, S. Tomaru, “Novel ‘serially grafted’ connection between functional and passive polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1205–1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in spun films of soluble polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chemtech (1)

S. Ando, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, “Perfluorinated polymers for optical waveguides,” Chemtech 24(12), 20–27 (1994).

Farbe Lack (1)

C. P. Herz, J. Eicher, “Neue photoinitiatoren zur UV-strahlungshärtung,” Farbe Lack 85, 933 (1979).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

J. D. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, J. Fisher, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, “Integrated optic adiabatic devices on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 556 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Bouadma, J. Liang, R. Levenson, S. Grosmaire, P. Boulet, S. Sainson, “Integration of a laser diode with a polymerbased waveguide for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1188–1190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Weidman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

D. S. Walker, K. Balasubramanian, W. M. Reichert, “Low loss DEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 49, 2147–2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, K. Kato, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, T. Matsunaga, “Improved 8 × 8 integrated optical matrix switch using silica-base planar waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1597–1606 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. (1)

J. Eicher, C. P. Herz, I. Naito, W. Schnabel, “Laser flash photolysis investigation of primary processes in the sensitized polymerization of vinyl monomers IV: experiments with hydroxy alkylphenones,” J. Photochem. 12, 225–234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Radiat. Curing (2)

T. E. Gismondi, “Influence of acrylate monomers on the resistance of UV-cured coatings to UV-induced degradation,” J. Radiat. Curing 11, 14–18 (1984).

R. A. LieBerman, “Photoinitiator effectiveness in curing epoxy acrylate coating formulations,” J. Radiat. Curing 8, 13–24 (1981).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Electro-optic functional waveguide using new polymer p-NAn-PVA for integrated photonic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378–1381 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hida, S. Imamura, “Influence of temperature and humidity change on optical waveguide circuits composed of deuterated and fluorinated methacrylate polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6416–6422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

A. F. Garito, J. W. Wu, G. F. Lipscomb, R. Lytel, “Non-linear optical polymers: challenges and opportunities in photonics,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 173, 467–486 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

Y. Yamada, M. Yamata, H. Terui, M. Kobayashi, “Optical interconnects using a silica-based waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1281–1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital high speed interconnects: a study of the optical alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computers,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1084 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Laser Technol. 25, 347–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

B. P. Pai, “Guided-wave optics on silicon: physics, technology and status,” Prog. Opt. 32, 3–59 (1993).

Synthetic Metals (1)

G. R. Möhlmann, “Polymeric optochips: splitters, switches and modulators,” Synthetic Metals 67, 77–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (28)

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer materials and devices for optical interconnect applications,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. SPIE1215, 253–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Oprysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, E. S. Binkley, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Electro-optic polymer waveguide devices,” in Materials for Nonlinear Optics, ACS Symposium Series 455, S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, G. D. Stucky, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 103–112.
[CrossRef]

R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, A. J. Ticknor, “Applications of electro-optic polymers to optical interconnects,” in Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, J. A. Neff, ed., Proc. SPIE1563, 122–138 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Trewhella, M. M. Oprysko, “Total internal reflection mirrors fabricated in polymeric optical waveguides via excimer laser ablation,” in Excimer Laser Materials Processing and Beam Delivery Systems, B.P. Piwczyk, ed., Proc. SPIE1377, 64–72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Davis, S. H. Lee, “Low-loss waveguides on silicon substrates for photonic circuits,” in Optical Technology for Signal Processing Systems, M. P. Bendett, ed., Proc. SPIE1474, 20–26 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Grant, R. Bellerby, S. Day, G. J. Cannell, M. Nelson, “Self-aligned multiple fibre coupling for silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual European Fibre Optic Communications and Local Area Network Conference, A. Harmer, ed., pp. 269–272 (1991).

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single mode plastic waveguide fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 88.5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 58.

J. P. G. Bristow, C. T. Sullivan, A. Guha, J. Ehramijian, A. Husain, “Polymer waveguide-based optical backplane for fine-grained computing,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 103–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Feger, R. Reuter, H. Franke, “Factors affecting polyimide lightguide quality,” in Polymers in Information Storage Technology, K. Mittal, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 227–236.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hewak, H. Jerominek, “Channel optical waveguides in polyimides for optical interconnection by laser direct writing and contact printing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1213, 86–99 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Franke, G. Knabke, R. Reuter, “Optical waveguiding in Polyimide II,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE682, 191–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical waveguiding in polyimide,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering III, R. T. Kersten, ed., Proc. SPIE651, 102–107 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, ed., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Husain, “Optical interconnect of digital integrated circuits and systems,” in Optical Interfaces for Digital Circuits and Systems, R. A. Milano, ed., Proc. SPIE466, 10–20 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985), Chap. 2.

F. S. Hickernell, C. T. Seaton, “Channelized optical waveguides on silicon,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 164–174 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Valette, J. P. Jadot, P. Gidon, S. Renard, “New integrated optics structure on silicon substrate: application to optical communication and optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnections, O. D. D. Soares, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE862, 20–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyashita, S. Sumida, S. Sakaguchi, “Integrated optical devices based on silica waveguide technologies,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering VI, M. A. Mentzer, ed., Proc. SPIE993, 288–294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kilcoyne, K. D. Pedrott, S. Beccue, W. Haber, “Optical signal interconnection between GaAs integrated circuit chips,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 148–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A technology for optical interconnections based on multichip integration,” in Integration and Packaging of Optoelectronic Devices, D. H. Hartman, R. L. Holman, D. P. Skinner, eds., Proc. SPIE703, 122–127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical Interconnects,” in Non-Linear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, N. Peyghambarian, eds., Vol. 30 in Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 61–89.
[CrossRef]

T. A. Lane, M. P. Bendett, C. T. Sullivan, J. P. G. Bristow, “Digital system application of optical interconnections,” in Fiber Optic Datacom and Computer Networks, J. Pazaris, J. E. Hayes, eds., Proc. SPIE991, 42–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wireboard interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, “Guided-wave chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambrian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 164–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lalk, P. D. Smith, D. W. Emmets, D. H. Hartman, “Board level high speed photonic interconnections: recent system developments,” in Optical Interconnects in the Computer Environment, J. Pazaris, G. R. Willenbring, eds., Proc. SPIE1178, 123–130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, B. Strebel, H. Yao, J. Krauser, “Applications of optical polymer waveguide devices on future optical communication and signal processing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry and Applications II, L. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 278–287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, S. P. Ermer, J. F. Valley, J. Kenney, E. Binkley, “Organic electro-optical devices for optical interconnection,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE1560, 388–399 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication steps for polymer waveguide: (a) Spin and cure clad layer over Si substrate with Al identification pattern and adhesion layer; (b) anisotropic RIE transfer of photolithographically defined resist pattern into clad layer; (c) spin and cure guide material; (d) isotropic RIE to planarize the surface; (e) spin and cure the top clad layer to complete guide structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical-loss spectrum of slab guide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical loss of guide as a function of time at different temperatures in air. Measurements were made at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of microprism reflecting surface to couple light out of the guide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far-field pattern of 1300-nm light coupled out of the guide by the microprism reflector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Calculated far-field pattern for a reflecting surface with a change in angle from 50° to 45° over the 7-μm-high guide; the mirror has 50 equal-length segments with a 0.1° progressive change in angle. (b) Measured far-field pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured far-field pattern for a microprism reflector without a segmented surface.

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