Abstract

A simple fabrication technique of nonlinear optical structures for use with dye-doped polymer is described. Polymethylmethacrylate, U-100 polymer, and polystyrene were used as the host matrices to fabricate the nonlinear optical waveguide. The periodically poled nonlinear optical polymer structures and ridge-type channel structures were fabricated by direct electron-beam irradiation. The electron beam with 25 kV of energy was exposed directly onto the polymer films containing the nonlinear optical chromophores. We can also demonstrate the fabrication technique of the domain-inverted grating of dye-doped polystyrene film.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1265–1276 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Rooks, H. V. Roussell, L. M. Johnson, “Polyimide optical waveguides fabricated with electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3880–3882 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Imamura, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as a dry etching-resistant negative resist for submicron technology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 9, 1628–1630 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Lai, L. T. Shepherd, “Experimental observations of nearly monodisperse polystyrene as negative electron resists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 4, 696–698 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Pederson, “Structural composition of polymers relative to their plasma etch characteristics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 205–208 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as deep UV and X-ray resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 776–782 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 13, 1718–1723 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1047–1052 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693–695 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).
  25. J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141–1143 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (5)

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693–695 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (4)

M. J. Rooks, H. V. Roussell, L. M. Johnson, “Polyimide optical waveguides fabricated with electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3880–3882 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as deep UV and X-ray resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 776–782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Pederson, “Structural composition of polymers relative to their plasma etch characteristics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 205–208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

S. Imamura, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as a dry etching-resistant negative resist for submicron technology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 9, 1628–1630 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lai, L. T. Shepherd, “Experimental observations of nearly monodisperse polystyrene as negative electron resists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 4, 696–698 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beylen, M. V.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bolink, H.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Brinker, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Clementi, E.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dieter, K. M.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, M.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Esho, S.

H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feger, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

Garito, A. F.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gerhard-Multhaupt, R.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gokan, H.

H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hasuda, Y.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heylen, M.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, G. J. B.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as deep UV and X-ray resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 776–782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as a dry etching-resistant negative resist for submicron technology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 9, 1628–1630 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

Kaino, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamal, A.

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

Kunioka, S.

Kurimura, S.

S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, H. A.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lai, J. H.

J. H. Lai, L. T. Shepherd, “Experimental observations of nearly monodisperse polystyrene as negative electron resists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 4, 696–698 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 13, 1718–1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1047–1052 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, T.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meenakshi, S.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, S. C.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mohlmann, G. R.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Nakayama, H.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Nishi, S.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, Y.

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, Y.

H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, M.

Okada, A.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Pederson, L. A.

L. A. Pederson, “Structural composition of polymers relative to their plasma etch characteristics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 205–208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. W.

Ren, W.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, R.

Rooks, M. J.

Roussell, H. V.

Russell, P. St. J.

Rustagi, K. C.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S’heeren, G.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Samyn, C.

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Sasaki, S.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1047–1052 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 13, 1718–1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sessier, G. M.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, L. T.

J. H. Lai, L. T. Shepherd, “Experimental observations of nearly monodisperse polystyrene as negative electron resists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 4, 696–698 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shimoya, I.

S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. J. P.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, S.

S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as deep UV and X-ray resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 776–782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 13, 1718–1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1047–1052 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomaru, S.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uesu, Y.

S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wirges, W.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yokohoma, I.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zamani-Khamiri, O.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Scanning electro-optical and pyroelectrical microscopy for the investigation of polarization patterns in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1724–1726 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguide at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear optical polymer films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Polym. J. (1)

G. S’heeren, A. Persoons, H. Bolink, M. Heylen, M. V. Beylen, C. Samyn, “Polymers containing nonlinear optical groups in the main chain. Second harmonic generation in corona poled thin films,” Eur. Polym. J. 29, 981–986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, “Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1029–1041 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules: applications to polyenes C4H5 to C22H24,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385–395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Chem. (1)

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (4)

S. Imamura, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as a dry etching-resistant negative resist for submicron technology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 9, 1628–1630 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lai, L. T. Shepherd, “Experimental observations of nearly monodisperse polystyrene as negative electron resists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 4, 696–698 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Pederson, “Structural composition of polymers relative to their plasma etch characteristics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 205–208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Gokan, S. Esho, Y. Ohnishi, “Dry etch resistance of organic materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1, 143–146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 13, 1718–1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Kurimura, I. Shimoya, Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion by an electron-beam-induced electric field in MgO:LiNbO3, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L31–L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane-urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, “Chloromethylated polystyrene as deep UV and X-ray resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 776–782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication sequence for a NLO waveguide by use of an electron beam: Type A, PMMA; Type B, U-100 and PS; Type C, U-100.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Decrease in SH intensity dependent on exposure doses when DEIO-doped PMMA film is used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SH intensity distribution of the χ(2) grating when PMMA fabricated by an exposure dose of 10 μC/cm2 is used. The sample was corona poled, and then the electron-beam exposure was performed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile photograph of an χ(2) grating when PMMA fabricated by an exposure dose of 30 μC/cm2 was used. The sample was developed after the exposure was completed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profile photograph of a ridge-type Y-branch NLO waveguide when PMMA fabricated by an exposure dose of 30 μC/cm2 was used.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the electron-beam dose and the depth of etching for various development temperatures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SH intensity distribution in the ridge-type NLO waveguide when U-100 polymer film fabricated with an exposure dose of 1000 μC/cm2 and thermal development of 200 °C was used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption spectrum of DEIO-doped U-100 polymer films for various exposure doses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electron-beam sensitivity curves for DEIO-doped PS film. The thickness of the sample was 0.8 μm, and the irradiated test pattern was a 10-μm grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SH intensity distribution of the DEIO-doped PS film according to heating temperatures of 80 and 110 °C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Coefficients and Order Parameters of NLO-Doped Polymers

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