Abstract

Abnormal combustion of a gasoline engine is often accompanied by a sharp metallic noise called knocking. A recently proposed method of in-cylinder pressure measurement is applied to detect the knocking, where the bending power loss of a single-mode fiber with specific refractive-index composition is utilized. The high-frequency response of a prototype sensor is obtained with a small structure to utilize the bending mechanism that is installed into an engine head gasket. Knocking signals are detected in a wide range of trace- to heavy-knock conditions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.
  2. Y. Hata, M. Asano, “New trends in electronic engine control—to the next stage,” SAE paper 860592 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986) and references therein.
  3. C. M. Anastasia, G. W. Pestana, “A cylinder pressure sensor for closed loop engine control,” SAE paper 870288 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1987); G. W. Pestana , “Engine control methods using combustion pressure feedback,” SAE paper 890758 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989); H. Kusakabe, T. Okauchi, M. Takigawa , “A cylinder pressure sensor for internal combustion engine,” SAE paper 920701 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992); W. Herden, M. Küsell , “A new combustion pressure sensor for advanced engine management,” SAE paper 940379 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).
  4. R. A. Atkins, J. H. Gardner, W. N. Gibler, C. E. Lee, M. D. Oakland, M. O. Spears, V. P. Swenson, H. F. Taylor, J. J. McCoy, G. Beshouri, “Fiber-optic pressure sensors for internal combustion engines,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1315–1320 (1994);R. Sadkowski, C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors with digital signal processings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5861–5866 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).
  6. M. Kondo, A. Niimi, T. Nakamura, “Indiscope—a new combustion pressure indicator with washer transducers,” SAE paper 750883 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1975); S. Watanabe, K. Machida, K. Iijima, N. Tomisawa , “A sophisticated engine control system using combustion pressure detection,” SAE paper 960042 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  7. M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 9, pp. 450–470; Chap. 15, pp. 869–886.
  9. B. L. Withrow, G. M. Rassweiler, “Slow motion shows knocking and nonknocking explosions,” SAE J. 39, 297–312 (1936); M. E. Gluckstein, C. Walcutt, “End-gas temperature-pressure histories and their relation to knock,” SAE Trans. 69, 529–553 (1961); S. Curry, “A three-dimensional study of flame propagation in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Trans. 71, 628–650 (1963); J. C. Firey, “A detonation wave theory of gasoline engine knock,” in Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Reinhold, New York, 1957), pp. 878–886.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Komachiya, H. Sonobe, S. Oho, M. Kurita, T. Nakazawa, T. Sasayama, “Multiplex in-cylinder pressure measurement utilizing an optical fiber with specific refractive-index composition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1143–1150 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 11; Chap. 12, pp. 208–279.
  12. D. R. Biswas, “Optical fiber coatings,” in Fiber Optics Reliability and Testing, D. K. Paul, ed., Proc. SPIECR50, 63–79 (1994).
  13. See, for example, L. Meirovitch , Analytical Methods in Vibrations (Macmillan, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, pp. 205–273.
  14. C. S. Draper, “Pressure wave accompanying detonation in the internal combustion engine,” J. Aeronaut. Sci. 5, 219–226 (1938).
  15. M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1938 (1)

C. S. Draper, “Pressure wave accompanying detonation in the internal combustion engine,” J. Aeronaut. Sci. 5, 219–226 (1938).

1936 (1)

B. L. Withrow, G. M. Rassweiler, “Slow motion shows knocking and nonknocking explosions,” SAE J. 39, 297–312 (1936); M. E. Gluckstein, C. Walcutt, “End-gas temperature-pressure histories and their relation to knock,” SAE Trans. 69, 529–553 (1961); S. Curry, “A three-dimensional study of flame propagation in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Trans. 71, 628–650 (1963); J. C. Firey, “A detonation wave theory of gasoline engine knock,” in Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Reinhold, New York, 1957), pp. 878–886.
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Anastasia, C. M.

C. M. Anastasia, G. W. Pestana, “A cylinder pressure sensor for closed loop engine control,” SAE paper 870288 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1987); G. W. Pestana , “Engine control methods using combustion pressure feedback,” SAE paper 890758 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989); H. Kusakabe, T. Okauchi, M. Takigawa , “A cylinder pressure sensor for internal combustion engine,” SAE paper 920701 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992); W. Herden, M. Küsell , “A new combustion pressure sensor for advanced engine management,” SAE paper 940379 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

Asano, M.

Y. Hata, M. Asano, “New trends in electronic engine control—to the next stage,” SAE paper 860592 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986) and references therein.

Astrakhan, V.

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. A.

Beshouri, G.

Biswas, D. R.

D. R. Biswas, “Optical fiber coatings,” in Fiber Optics Reliability and Testing, D. K. Paul, ed., Proc. SPIECR50, 63–79 (1994).

Chujou, Y.

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Draper, C. S.

C. S. Draper, “Pressure wave accompanying detonation in the internal combustion engine,” J. Aeronaut. Sci. 5, 219–226 (1938).

Gardner, J. H.

Gibler, W. N.

Hata, Y.

Y. Hata, M. Asano, “New trends in electronic engine control—to the next stage,” SAE paper 860592 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986) and references therein.

Heywood, J. B.

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 9, pp. 450–470; Chap. 15, pp. 869–886.

Kaneyasu, M.

M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

Katogi, K.

M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

Kluzner, M.

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

Komachiya, M.

Kondo, M.

M. Kondo, A. Niimi, T. Nakamura, “Indiscope—a new combustion pressure indicator with washer transducers,” SAE paper 750883 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1975); S. Watanabe, K. Machida, K. Iijima, N. Tomisawa , “A sophisticated engine control system using combustion pressure detection,” SAE paper 960042 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Kurihara, N.

M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Kurita, M.

Lee, C. E.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 11; Chap. 12, pp. 208–279.

McCoy, J. J.

Meirovitch, L.

See, for example, L. Meirovitch , Analytical Methods in Vibrations (Macmillan, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, pp. 205–273.

Nakamura, T.

M. Kondo, A. Niimi, T. Nakamura, “Indiscope—a new combustion pressure indicator with washer transducers,” SAE paper 750883 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1975); S. Watanabe, K. Machida, K. Iijima, N. Tomisawa , “A sophisticated engine control system using combustion pressure detection,” SAE paper 960042 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Nakazawa, T.

Niimi, A.

M. Kondo, A. Niimi, T. Nakamura, “Indiscope—a new combustion pressure indicator with washer transducers,” SAE paper 750883 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1975); S. Watanabe, K. Machida, K. Iijima, N. Tomisawa , “A sophisticated engine control system using combustion pressure detection,” SAE paper 960042 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Nonomura, Y.

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Oakland, M. D.

Oho, S.

Omura, Y.

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Pestana, G. W.

C. M. Anastasia, G. W. Pestana, “A cylinder pressure sensor for closed loop engine control,” SAE paper 870288 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1987); G. W. Pestana , “Engine control methods using combustion pressure feedback,” SAE paper 890758 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989); H. Kusakabe, T. Okauchi, M. Takigawa , “A cylinder pressure sensor for internal combustion engine,” SAE paper 920701 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992); W. Herden, M. Küsell , “A new combustion pressure sensor for advanced engine management,” SAE paper 940379 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

Rassweiler, G. M.

B. L. Withrow, G. M. Rassweiler, “Slow motion shows knocking and nonknocking explosions,” SAE J. 39, 297–312 (1936); M. E. Gluckstein, C. Walcutt, “End-gas temperature-pressure histories and their relation to knock,” SAE Trans. 69, 529–553 (1961); S. Curry, “A three-dimensional study of flame propagation in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Trans. 71, 628–650 (1963); J. C. Firey, “A detonation wave theory of gasoline engine knock,” in Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Reinhold, New York, 1957), pp. 878–886.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, S.

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Sasayama, T.

M. Komachiya, H. Sonobe, S. Oho, M. Kurita, T. Nakazawa, T. Sasayama, “Multiplex in-cylinder pressure measurement utilizing an optical fiber with specific refractive-index composition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1143–1150 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 11; Chap. 12, pp. 208–279.

Sonobe, H.

Spears, M. O.

Suda, S.

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Suzuki, S.

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Swenson, V. P.

Takeuchi, M.

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Taylor, H. F.

Tokuda, H.

M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

Tsukada, K.

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Ulrich, O.

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

Vokovich, D.

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

Withrow, B. L.

B. L. Withrow, G. M. Rassweiler, “Slow motion shows knocking and nonknocking explosions,” SAE J. 39, 297–312 (1936); M. E. Gluckstein, C. Walcutt, “End-gas temperature-pressure histories and their relation to knock,” SAE Trans. 69, 529–553 (1961); S. Curry, “A three-dimensional study of flame propagation in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Trans. 71, 628–650 (1963); J. C. Firey, “A detonation wave theory of gasoline engine knock,” in Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Reinhold, New York, 1957), pp. 878–886.
[CrossRef]

Wlodarczyk, M. T.

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Aeronaut. Sci. (1)

C. S. Draper, “Pressure wave accompanying detonation in the internal combustion engine,” J. Aeronaut. Sci. 5, 219–226 (1938).

SAE J. (1)

B. L. Withrow, G. M. Rassweiler, “Slow motion shows knocking and nonknocking explosions,” SAE J. 39, 297–312 (1936); M. E. Gluckstein, C. Walcutt, “End-gas temperature-pressure histories and their relation to knock,” SAE Trans. 69, 529–553 (1961); S. Curry, “A three-dimensional study of flame propagation in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Trans. 71, 628–650 (1963); J. C. Firey, “A detonation wave theory of gasoline engine knock,” in Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Reinhold, New York, 1957), pp. 878–886.
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 11; Chap. 12, pp. 208–279.

D. R. Biswas, “Optical fiber coatings,” in Fiber Optics Reliability and Testing, D. K. Paul, ed., Proc. SPIECR50, 63–79 (1994).

See, for example, L. Meirovitch , Analytical Methods in Vibrations (Macmillan, New York, 1967), Chap. 6, pp. 205–273.

T. Sasayama, S. Suzuki, M. Amano, N. Kurihara, S. Sakamoto, S. Suda, “An advanced engine control system using combustion pressure sensors,” in Proceedings of 1985 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON’85) (IEEE, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 68–72.

Y. Hata, M. Asano, “New trends in electronic engine control—to the next stage,” SAE paper 860592 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986) and references therein.

C. M. Anastasia, G. W. Pestana, “A cylinder pressure sensor for closed loop engine control,” SAE paper 870288 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1987); G. W. Pestana , “Engine control methods using combustion pressure feedback,” SAE paper 890758 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989); H. Kusakabe, T. Okauchi, M. Takigawa , “A cylinder pressure sensor for internal combustion engine,” SAE paper 920701 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992); W. Herden, M. Küsell , “A new combustion pressure sensor for advanced engine management,” SAE paper 940379 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

M. Takeuchi, K. Tsukada, Y. Nonomura, Y. Omura, Y. Chujou, “A combustion pressure sensor utilizing silicon piezoresistive effect,” SAE paper 930351 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

M. Kondo, A. Niimi, T. Nakamura, “Indiscope—a new combustion pressure indicator with washer transducers,” SAE paper 750883 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1975); S. Watanabe, K. Machida, K. Iijima, N. Tomisawa , “A sophisticated engine control system using combustion pressure detection,” SAE paper 960042 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

M. T. Wlodarczyk, D. Vokovich, V. Astrakhan, M. Kluzner, O. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor for combustion monitoring and control,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors III, M. T. Wlodarczyk , ed., Proc. SPIE1587, 4–10 (1991);G. He, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Evaluation of a spark-plug-integrated fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor,” SAE paper 940381 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); T. J. Poorman, X. Liangdao, M. T. Wlodarczyk , “Ignition system-embedded fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor for engine control and monitoring,” SAE paper 970845 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 9, pp. 450–470; Chap. 15, pp. 869–886.

M. Kaneyasu, N. Kurihara, K. Katogi, H. Tokuda, “Engine knock detection using multi-spectrum method,” SAE paper 920702 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the sensing part of the fiber-optic CPS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified model of the sensing fiber supported in the sensing part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated eigenfrequency F f of the supported fiber in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental equipment of the vibration test to evaluate the frequency response of the sensing fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System configuration for the vibration test using the equipment of Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output signals of the sensing fiber (Ch. 1) and the driving signals (Ch. 2) of the piezoelectric actuator in the vibration tests of Figs. 4 and 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resonant characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator set in the equipment of Fig. 4 and the detection circuit. The resonant points are indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Frequency response of the sensing fiber. The resonant points that correspond to the ones in Fig. 7 are indicated similarly by the arrows.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

In-cylinder pressure curves (Ch. 1) and knocking signals (Ch. 2) of the fiber-optic CPS: (a) nonknocking state of combustion; 9(b)–9(f), abnormal states of combustion with different levels of knocking signals. The advanced CA’s of the spark timing are given in parentheses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

In-cylinder pressure curves and knocking signals of the fiber-optic CPS (Ch. 1) and the piezoelectric reference sensor (Ch. 2) for the heavy-knock condition.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Examples of the vibration modes that have nodal lines: bold circles, cylinder wall; lines and circles (inside the bold circles), nodal lines of pressure vibration; n θ, number of azimuthal nodes (nodal planes containing the cylinder axis and a diameter); n r , number of radial nodes (nodal cylinders). Same notations are employed as in Ref. 14.

Equations (2)

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F f = 1 2 π π 4 ED 2 16 ρ W 4 + π 2 E ε ρ W 2 1 / 2 ,
ε = 4 T π D 2 E .

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