Abstract

A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Å (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Å wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6 × 1013 W cm-2. The 5.8× magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 keV were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. D. Schnittman, R. S. Craxton, “Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786–3796 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. E. Kidder, “Laser-driven compression of hollow shells: power requirements and stability limitations,” Nucl. Fusion 16, 3–14 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Skupsky, K. Lee, “Uniformity of energy deposition for laser driven fusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3662–3671 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. D. Schnittman, R. S. Craxton, “Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786–3796 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Skupsky, K. Lee, “Uniformity of energy deposition for laser driven fusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3662–3671 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R. E. Kidder, “Laser-driven compression of hollow shells: power requirements and stability limitations,” Nucl. Fusion 16, 3–14 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Albritton, J. R.

T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
[Crossref]

Back, C.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behring, W.

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, P. M.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

Boehly, T. R.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bonner, R.

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bower, J.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brown, C.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

Craxton, R.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Craxton, R. S.

J. D. Schnittman, R. S. Craxton, “Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786–3796 (1996).
[Crossref]

DaSilva, L.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dean, D.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dewandre, T.

T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
[Crossref]

Doyas, R.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, J.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekberg, J.

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, U.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glendinning, G.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammel, B. A.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanks, R.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hennesian, M.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinterman, T.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Holland, G.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, E.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kania, D. R.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauffman, R. L.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kelly, J.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kessler, T.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kidder, R. E.

R. E. Kidder, “Laser-driven compression of hollow shells: power requirements and stability limitations,” Nucl. Fusion 16, 3–14 (1976).
[Crossref]

Kilkenny, J. D.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Killkenny, J. D.

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kornblum, H.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumpan, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Landen, O.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Langer, S. H.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

S. Skupsky, K. Lee, “Uniformity of energy deposition for laser driven fusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3662–3671 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lee, R.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letzring, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

MacGowan, B.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCrory, R.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, D.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montogomery, D. S.

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

Moreno, J.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

Morse, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nuckolls, J.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Reader, J.

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ress, D.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. D.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schnittman, J. D.

J. D. Schnittman, R. S. Craxton, “Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786–3796 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seely, J.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seely, J. F.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seka, W.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Skupsky, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Skupsky, K. Lee, “Uniformity of energy deposition for laser driven fusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3662–3671 (1983).
[Crossref]

Soures, J.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stewart, J.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Suter, L. J.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thiessen, A.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Verdon, C.

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wallace, R.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wallace, R. J.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wan, A.

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wiedwald, J.

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wiedwald, J. D.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

Williams, E. A.

T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wood, L.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Young, P.

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ze, F.

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zimmerman, G.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Skupsky, K. Lee, “Uniformity of energy deposition for laser driven fusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3662–3671 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super-high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature (London) 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Fusion (1)

R. E. Kidder, “Laser-driven compression of hollow shells: power requirements and stability limitations,” Nucl. Fusion 16, 3–14 (1976).
[Crossref]

Phys. Fluids (1)

T. Dewandre, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, “Doppler shift of laser light reflected from expanding plasmas,” Phys. Fluids 24, 528–536 (1981).
[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (3)

F. Ze, S. H. Langer, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, O. Landen, D. Ress, M. D. Rosen, L. J. Suter, R. J. Wallace, J. D. Wiedwald, “A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 778–787 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. D. Schnittman, R. S. Craxton, “Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786–3796 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, G. Holland, R. Lee, J. Moreno, B. MacGowan, C. Back, L. DaSilva, A. Wan, “Imaging of laser-irradiated targets at a wavelength of 33.8 Å using a normal-incidence multilayer mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1997–2002 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. R. Kania, H. Kornblum, B. A. Hammel, J. Seely, C. Brown, U. Feldman, G. Glendinning, P. Young, E. Hsieh, M. Hennesian, L. DaSilva, B. MacGowan, D. Montgomery, C. Back, R. Doyas, J. Edwards, R. Lee, “Characterization of an x-ray-flux source for the production of high-energy-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 7853–7867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. F. Seely, J. Ekberg, C. Brown, U. Feldman, W. Behring, J. Reader, M. Richardson, “Laser-produced spectra and QED effects for Fe-, Co-, Cu-, and Zn-like ions of Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924–2926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. Ze, R. L. Kauffman, J. D. Kilkenny, J. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, R. Hanks, J. Stewart, D. Dean, J. Bower, R. Wallace, “A new multichannel soft-x-ray framing camera for fusion experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5124–5126 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. R. Boehly, R. Craxton, T. Hinterman, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. Soures, C. Verdon, “Upgrades to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. D. Wiedwald, P. M. Bell, J. D. Killkenny, R. Bonner, D. S. Montogomery, “Recent advances in grated x-ray imaging at LLNL,” in Ultrahigh and High Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry, G. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1346, 449–455 (1990).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the soft-x-ray microscope (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured reflectances of the multilayer-coated secondary mirror and the witness flat mirror at an angle of incidence of 10°, (b) calculated reflectance of the multilayer coating at angles of incidence of 10° and 0° (normal to the surface).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflectance of the multilayer coating and (b) the transmittances of the Al/parylene and Ti/Lexan filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the resolution test target and (b) the soft-x-ray image of the resolution target.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lineout through the region of the resolution target that shows the 25-μm and 10-μm fibers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Soft-x-ray (257-eV) images recorded by the multilayer microscope and a gated framing camera at the indicated times after the rise of the laser pulse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Side view of a gold-coated CH foil that was irradiated by two beams from each side. The image was recorded 2.5 ns after the rise of the laser pulse. As indicated, the gold coating was on the left side of the foil and the gold plasma was quite bright. The emission on the CH side was absent in the image.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Radii of the face-on plasma images of Fig. 6 and (b) the rate of increase of the radii.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Hard-x-ray (>2-keV) images recorded by a pinhole array and a gated framing camera at the indicated times after the rise of the laser pulse.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Soft-X-Ray Microscope

Metrics