Abstract

A novel refractive-index detection scheme used for capillary electrophoresis detection, based on the interference of two retroreflected beams from the outer surface of a capillary tube illuminated by a focused laser beam, is described. A theoretical description and experimental measurement of the intensity profile of the interference fringe pattern in the detection plane are presented. The factors that limit the sensitivity of the proposed refractive-index detection scheme are discussed and compared with the transmitted beam interference and backscatter-based refractive-index detection configurations. The proposed refractive-index detector was used successfully for detection of capillary electrophoresis separations of saccharose, maltose, and lactose with a capillary tube of 50-μm inner diameter and a simple experimental setup.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. G. Kuhr, E. S. Yeung, “Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1832–1834 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simultaneous laser-based refractive index and absorbance determinations within microliter diameter capillary tubes,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1632–1636 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geisser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive-index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Sub-femtomole determination of DABSYL-amino acids using capillary zone electrophoresis and laser-based thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Mikrochim. Acta 3, 27–40 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Attomole amino acid analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis with thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Anal. Chem. 61, 37–40 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. Bornhop, “Microvolume index of refraction determinations by interferometric backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3234–3239 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. W. Jorgenson, K. D. Lukacs, “Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 53, 1298–1302 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Harris, N. J. Dovichi, “Thermal lens calorimetry,” Anal. Chem. 52, 695A–706A (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. E. Bruno, A. Paulus, D. J. Bornhop, “Thermo-optical absorption detection in 25-μm-i.d. capillaries: capillary electrophoresis of Dansyl-amino acids mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 462–467 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

D. J. Bornhop, “Microvolume index of refraction determinations by interferometric backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3234–3239 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

A. E. Bruno, A. Paulus, D. J. Bornhop, “Thermo-optical absorption detection in 25-μm-i.d. capillaries: capillary electrophoresis of Dansyl-amino acids mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 462–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Attomole amino acid analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis with thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Anal. Chem. 61, 37–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

W. G. Kuhr, E. S. Yeung, “Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1832–1834 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Sub-femtomole determination of DABSYL-amino acids using capillary zone electrophoresis and laser-based thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Mikrochim. Acta 3, 27–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simultaneous laser-based refractive index and absorbance determinations within microliter diameter capillary tubes,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1632–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. W. Jorgenson, K. D. Lukacs, “Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 53, 1298–1302 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. M. Harris, N. J. Dovichi, “Thermal lens calorimetry,” Anal. Chem. 52, 695A–706A (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bocek, P.

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bornhop, D. J.

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, “Microvolume index of refraction determinations by interferometric backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3234–3239 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, A. Paulus, D. J. Bornhop, “Thermo-optical absorption detection in 25-μm-i.d. capillaries: capillary electrophoresis of Dansyl-amino acids mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 462–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simultaneous laser-based refractive index and absorbance determinations within microliter diameter capillary tubes,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1632–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bruln, G. J. M.

B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, A. E.

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geisser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive-index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, A. Paulus, D. J. Bornhop, “Thermo-optical absorption detection in 25-μm-i.d. capillaries: capillary electrophoresis of Dansyl-amino acids mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 462–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.-Y.

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. K.

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geisser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive-index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y. Z.

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diez-Masa, J. C.

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dovichi, N. J.

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Attomole amino acid analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis with thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Anal. Chem. 61, 37–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Sub-femtomole determination of DABSYL-amino acids using capillary zone electrophoresis and laser-based thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Mikrochim. Acta 3, 27–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simultaneous laser-based refractive index and absorbance determinations within microliter diameter capillary tubes,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1632–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harris, N. J. Dovichi, “Thermal lens calorimetry,” Anal. Chem. 52, 695A–706A (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fanali, S.

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Foret, F.

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Geisser, M.

Gordon, M. J.

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. M.

J. M. Harris, N. J. Dovichi, “Thermal lens calorimetry,” Anal. Chem. 52, 695A–706A (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, J. W.

J. W. Jorgenson, K. D. Lukacs, “Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 53, 1298–1302 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kenmore, C. K.

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krattiger, B.

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geisser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive-index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuhr, W. G.

W. G. Kuhr, E. S. Yeung, “Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1832–1834 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B. C.

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lukacs, K. D.

J. W. Jorgenson, K. D. Lukacs, “Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 53, 1298–1302 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, F.

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neill, P.

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, T. G.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ossicini, L.

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pang, T.-K.

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, A.

Saz, J. M.

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sweedler, J. V.

T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tarigan, H. J.

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, H. M.

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geisser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive-index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, H. M. J.

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, E. S.

W. G. Kuhr, E. S. Yeung, “Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1832–1834 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Attomole amino acid analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis with thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Anal. Chem. 61, 37–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Sub-femtomole determination of DABSYL-amino acids using capillary zone electrophoresis and laser-based thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Mikrochim. Acta 3, 27–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

W. G. Kuhr, E. S. Yeung, “Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1832–1834 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simultaneous laser-based refractive index and absorbance determinations within microliter diameter capillary tubes,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1632–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, T.-K. Pang, M. J. Gordon, R. N. Zare, “On-column conductivity detector for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2747–2749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tarigan, P. Neill, C. K. Kenmore, D. J. Bornhop, “Capillary-scale refractive index detection by interferometric backscatter,” Anal. Chem. 68, 1762–1770 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuda, J. V. Sweedler, R. N. Zare, “Rectangular capillaries for capillary zone electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2149–2152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Jorgenson, K. D. Lukacs, “Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 53, 1298–1302 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Krattiger, G. J. M. Bruln, A. E. Bruno, “Hologram-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis: separation of metal ions,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1–8 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Attomole amino acid analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis with thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Anal. Chem. 61, 37–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, R. Dandliker, “Hologram-based thermooptical absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis: separation of nucleosides and nucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 67, 124–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, S. Wu, D.-Y. Chen, N. J. Dovichi, “Interaction of capillary zone electrophoresis with a sheath flow cuvette detector,” Anal. Chem. 62, 496–503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harris, N. J. Dovichi, “Thermal lens calorimetry,” Anal. Chem. 52, 695A–706A (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Chromatogr.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. microbore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Foret, S. Fanali, L. Ossicini, P. Bocek, “Indirect photometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis,” J. Chromatogr. 470, 299–308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. A

J. M. Saz, B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, J. C. Diez-Masa, H. M. J. Widmer, “Thermo-optical absorbance detection of native proteins separated by capillary electrophoresis in 10 μm I.D. tubes,” J. Chromatogr. A 699, 315–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mikrochim. Acta

M. Yu, N. J. Dovichi, “Sub-femtomole determination of DABSYL-amino acids using capillary zone electrophoresis and laser-based thermo-optical absorbance detection,” Mikrochim. Acta 3, 27–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Sensitive photothermal interferometric detection method for characterization of transparent plate samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3649–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

B. C. Li, Y. Z. Deng, J. K. Cheng, “Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurements,” Talanta 43, 627–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a retroreflected beam interference-based RI detector for CE detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of a typical interference fringe pattern taken in the detection plane, (b) schematic diagram showing the directions of the capillary tube and laser beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensity profiles of the interference fringe pattern in the detection plane for (a) pure water and (b) 5% (vol./vol.) ethanol dissolved in water, filling a 75-μm-i.d. capillary tube.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electropherogram of a1, 1% saccharose; 2, 2% maltose; and 3, 1% lactose solution detected by means of a retroreflected beam interference-based RI detector. The CE conditions were 50-μm-i.d., 38-cm length (32 cm to the detector) capillary tube; 0.075-M Na2B4O7 buffer; 10-kV voltage; 48-μA current.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical intensity profiles in the detection plane and their first derivatives with respect to the RI of the effluent for different optical path differences: (a) Δ = , (b) Δ = (m + 1/4)λ, (c) Δ = (m + 1/2)λ, (d) Δ = (m + 3/4)λ. Assumed values of ω0 = 355 μm, L 1 = 114 cm (ω0 and L 1 were determined by measuring the spot radius of the laser beam at different propagation distances and fitting to Gaussian beam propagation characteristics), L 0 = 1.07 cm, L 2 = 74 cm, f = 1.0 cm, capillary i.d. of 75 μm, capillary o.d. of 320 μm, n 0 = 1.467.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1, theoretical fringe contrast and beam spot radii at 2, the front and 3, the rear surfaces of the capillary tube as a function of the position of the microscope objective. Other values are the same as those in Fig. 6.

Equations (17)

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I ( r ) = I 1 ( r ) + I 2 ( r ) + 2 I 1 ( r ) I 2 ( r ) × cos k ( Δ + r 2 2 R 2 - r 2 2 R 1 ) ,
I 1 ( r ) = TC ω 1 2 exp ( - 2 r 2 / ω 1 2 ) ,
I 2 ( r ) = TC ( 1 - T ) 2 ω 2 2 exp ( - 2 r 2 / ω 2 2 ) ,
Δ = 2 nd 0 + n 0 d - d 0 .
A 1 C 1 B 1 D 1 = 1 0 L 2 1 1 - 1 / f 0 1 1 0 2 L 0 1 1 - 1 / f 0 1 × 1 0 L 1 1
A 1 = 2 1 - L 0 / f 1 - L 2 / f - 1 ,
B 1 = 1 - L 1 / f 2 L 0 1 - L 2 / f + L 2 + L 1 1 - L 2 / f ,
C 1 = - 2 1 - L 0 / f / f ,
D 1 = 2 1 - L 0 / f 1 - L 1 / f - 1 .
A 2 = 2 1 - L 0 + d 0 / n + d - d 0 / n 0 f 1 - L 2 f - 1 ,
B 2 = 2 1 - L 1 f 2 L 0 + d 0 n + d - d 0 n 0 1 - L 2 f + L 2 + L 1 1 - L 2 f ,
C 2 = - 2 f 1 - L 0 + d 0 / n + d - d 0 / n 0 f ,
D 2 = 2 1 - L 0 + d 0 / n + d - d 0 / n 0 f 1 - L 1 f - 1 .
ω i = ω 0 ( A i 2 + B i 2 / Z c 2 ) 1 / 2 ( i = 1 ,   2 ) ,
R i = ( A i 2 Z c 2 + B i 2 ) / ( A i C i Z c 2 + B i D i ) ( i = 1 ,   2 ) .
r 0 = 2 m ± 1 4 λ - Δ | R 1 R 2 R 1 - R 2 | 1 / 2 ,
Δ I r 0 = 2 I 1 r 0 I 2 r 0   2 d 0 2 π λ   Δ n .

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