Abstract

Vertical profiles of backscattering coefficients, optical thicknesses, and columnar size distributions of aerosols were obtained by simultaneous measurements with lidar, a sunphotometer, and an aureolemeter in Tsukuba, Japan, from November 1991 to December 1992. Several conspicuous characteristics were found in the relationship between aerosol size distribution and stratification. In summer an accumulation mode is dominant, and aerosols were heavily loaded in the planetary boundary layer. Turbid atmospheres with an abundance of large particles are observed in the middle troposphere in the spring. In autumn and winter the troposphere is clear so that columnar aerosol size distributions reflect stratospheric aerosols. During the observation period, volcanic aerosols that are due to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were being loaded in the stratosphere. The mode radius in the volume size distribution of the stratospheric aerosol was observed to increase from 0.45 μm in November 1991 to 0.6 μm in October 1992, and decreased after October 1992. Total aerosol loading in the stratosphere was estimated to be maximum in the spring of 1992, minimum in the autumn of 1992, and increased again after the autumn of 1992.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  34. T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1995

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

1991

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

H. Jäger, D. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14,039–14,047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Ogawa, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “A simple expression for the additional sky radiance produced by polarization effects,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 877–888 (1989).

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

1988

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1985

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

1984

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon eruption cloud: comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885–888 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Spatial and temporal variation of tropospheric aerosol volume distributions,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1262–1269 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Measurements of aerosol size distribution in the lower troposphere over northern Europe,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1119–1128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, “Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104–1119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969

Arao, K.

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

Asano, S.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

Byrne, B. M.

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cress, T. S.

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Spatial and temporal variation of tropospheric aerosol volume distributions,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1262–1269 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Measurements of aerosol size distribution in the lower troposphere over northern Europe,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1119–1128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cuzzi, J. N.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle , Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Deshler, T.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Farlow, N. H.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferry, G. V.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, B. W.

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Spatial and temporal variation of tropospheric aerosol volume distributions,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1262–1269 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Measurements of aerosol size distribution in the lower troposphere over northern Europe,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1119–1128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, T.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Gerber, H. E.

H. E. Gerber, “Absorption of light by atmospheric aerosol particles: review of instrumentation and measurements,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 21–53.

Grainger, R. G.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, “Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104–1119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hashida, G.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14,039–14,047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, D. M.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

Iwasaka, N.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, H.

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Kiang, C. S.

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, “Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104–1119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle , Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Lambert, A.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lem, H. Y.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

McCormick, M. P.

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon eruption cloud: comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885–888 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

Nagai, T.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Nakajima, T.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14,039–14,047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

H. Ogawa, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “A simple expression for the additional sky radiance produced by polarization effects,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 877–888 (1989).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, H.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Nakane, H.

Nakanishi, Y.

Nikaidou, Y.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Nomura, R.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Ogawa, H.

H. Ogawa, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “A simple expression for the additional sky radiance produced by polarization effects,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 877–888 (1989).

Okada, Y.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sai, Y.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Sasamoto, K.

Sasano, Y.

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle , Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Shimizu, H.

Shiobara, M.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

Spinhirne, J. D.

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon eruption cloud: comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885–888 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sunagawa, T.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Swissler, T. J.

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon eruption cloud: comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885–888 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, I.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Takamura, T.

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

Takasugi, T.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Takeuchi, N.

Takizawa, I.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tamashiro, K.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

Tanaka, M.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14,039–14,047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogawa, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “A simple expression for the additional sky radiance produced by polarization effects,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 877–888 (1989).

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447–453 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, F. W.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, “Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104–1119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Uchiyama, A.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

Whitby, K. T.

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, G.

Yamano, M.

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

Yamauchi, T.

Appl. Opt.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447–453 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jäger, D. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Environ.

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon eruption cloud: comparison of lidar and optical thickness measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885–888 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Measurements of aerosol size distribution in the lower troposphere over northern Europe,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1119–1128 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

M. D. King, B. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, “Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104–1119 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol.

B. W. Fitch, T. S. Cress, “Spatial and temporal variation of tropospheric aerosol volume distributions,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1262–1269 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14,039–14,047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, “Latitudinal variations of stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733–743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

T. Nagai, O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, Y. Sai, K. Tamashiro, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, “Lidar observation of the stratospheric aerosol layer over Okinawa, Japan, after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 749–755 (1993).

H. Ogawa, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “A simple expression for the additional sky radiance produced by polarization effects,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 877–888 (1989).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

M. Tanaka, M. Shiobara, T. Nakajima, M. Yamano, K. Arao, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand Events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki: Part I. Observations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 249–265 (1989).

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaidou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian dust) over Tsukuba, Japan during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle , Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

H. E. Gerber, “Absorption of light by atmospheric aerosol particles: review of instrumentation and measurements,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 21–53.

A. Deepak, H. E. Gerber, eds., “Report of the Experts Meeting on Aerosols and Their Climatic Effects,” WCP-55 (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1983).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Example of a vertical profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient in the troposphere and (b) the corresponding columnar size distribution of aerosols for category (1), obtained the afternoon of 25 November 1991. The dashed curves represent the standard deviation of the observed data during the observation time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 except for category (2), obtained on 20 July 1992.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 1 except for category (3), obtained 21 April 1992.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the scale height of aerosols to 12 km and the corresponding optical thickness at 532 nm observed by lidar with S 1 = 50.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Size distributions that correspond to the filled circles in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size distributions that correspond to the encircled plus symbols in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Size distributions in the heavy loading condition observed during the summer that have too large extinction coefficients to be retrieved by lidar measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal variation of aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm obtained by sunphotometer measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal variations of (a) mode radius r v , (b) standard deviation σ, (c) peak value C v of the size distribution of stratospheric aerosols as expressed by a log-normal function [Eq. (3)].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Seasonal Summary of the Number of Days that Each Category of Aerosol was Observed

Tables Icon

Table 2 Number and Percent Ratios for Each Seasona

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P Z = ECZ - 2 b 1 Z + b 2 Z T 1 2 T 2 2 ,
R θ = E θ mF d Ω ,
d V d   ln   r = C V exp - 1 2 ln   r - ln   r V ln   σ 2 .

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