Abstract

A critical evaluation of various theoretical techniques for calculating the reflectivity of one-dimensional metallic randomly rough surfaces is presented. We proceed by comparing experimental and rigorous numerical results with those obtained with three perturbation theories and the Kirchhoff approximation. The samples were fabricated in photoresist, and their metallized surface profiles constitute good approximations to Gaussian-correlated, Gaussian random processes. The correlation lengths of these surfaces range from approximately one third to approximately three times the infrared wavelengths employed. The results show that the phase-perturbation theory has wider applicability than the other perturbation theories and the results based on the Kirchhoff approximation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Lord Rayleigh , The Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1896), Vol. 2, pp. 89–96.
  3. Lord Rayleigh , “On the dynamical theory of gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 79, 399–416 (1907).
  4. J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, Bristol, 1991), p. 38.
  5. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 245.
  6. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1987), p. 72.
  7. Ref. 4, p. 73.
  8. Ref. 5, p. 238.
  9. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. E. Bennett, “Specular reflectance of aluminized ground glass and the height distribution of surface irregularities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1389–1394 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. A. Depew, R. D. Weir, “Surface roughness determination by the measurement of reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 10, 969–970 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. C. Birkebak, “Optical and mechanical rms surface roughness comparison,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1970 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. E. Knotts, K. A. O’Donnell, “Measurement of light-scattering by a series of conducting surfaces with one-dimensional roughness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 697–710 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. T. Welford, “Optical estimation of statistics of surface roughness from light scattering measurements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 269–287 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Saénchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Limits of validity of three perturbation theories of the coherent scattering of light from a one-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1547–1558 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, A. T. Friberg, “Scattering from slightly rough random surfaces: a detailed study on the validity of the small perturbation method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1185–1201 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. A. Maradudin, “Electromagnetic surface excitations on rough surfaces,” in Electromagnetic Surface Excitations, R. F. Wallis, G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 57–131.
  20. A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Shen, A. A. Maradudin, “Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 4234–4240 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Investigation of a surface field phase perturbation techniques for scattering from rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 20, 161–170 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Application of the phase-perturbation technique to randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 2285–2294 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “A detailed study of the scattering of scalar waves from random rough surfaces,” Opt. Acta 28, 1651–1672 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).
  27. R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Theoretical studies of the enhanced backscattering of light from one-dimensional randomly rough metal surfaces by the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition,” Physica A 207, 302–314 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. N. Shkliarevskii, V. G. Padlaka, “Measurement of optical constants of copper, gold and nickel in the infrared spectral region,” Opt. Spektrosk. 6, 78–84 (1959).
  30. R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. A. O’Donnell, E. R. Méndez, “Experimental study of scattering from characterized random surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1194–1205 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. J. Sant, J. C. Dainty, M. J. Kim, “Comparison of surface scattering between identical, randomly rough metal and dielectric diffusers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1183–1185 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one- and two-dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. A. O’Donnell, M. E. Knotts, “Polarization-dependence of scattering from one-dimensional rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 585–596 (1992).
  37. G. S. Brown, “Scattering from a class of randomly rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 17, 1274–1280 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Saénchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Limits of validity of three perturbation theories of the coherent scattering of light from a one-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1547–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. E. Knotts, K. A. O’Donnell, “Measurement of light-scattering by a series of conducting surfaces with one-dimensional roughness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 697–710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Theoretical studies of the enhanced backscattering of light from one-dimensional randomly rough metal surfaces by the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition,” Physica A 207, 302–314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

1990 (4)

R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one- and two-dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, A. T. Friberg, “Scattering from slightly rough random surfaces: a detailed study on the validity of the small perturbation method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1185–1201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

K. A. O’Donnell, E. R. Méndez, “Experimental study of scattering from characterized random surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1194–1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Application of the phase-perturbation technique to randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 2285–2294 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Investigation of a surface field phase perturbation techniques for scattering from rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 20, 161–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. S. Brown, “Scattering from a class of randomly rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 17, 1274–1280 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “A detailed study of the scattering of scalar waves from random rough surfaces,” Opt. Acta 28, 1651–1672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Shen, A. A. Maradudin, “Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 4234–4240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

W. T. Welford, “Optical estimation of statistics of surface roughness from light scattering measurements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 269–287 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

1963 (1)

1961 (1)

1959 (1)

I. N. Shkliarevskii, V. G. Padlaka, “Measurement of optical constants of copper, gold and nickel in the infrared spectral region,” Opt. Spektrosk. 6, 78–84 (1959).

1951 (1)

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

Lord Rayleigh , “On the dynamical theory of gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 79, 399–416 (1907).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1987), p. 72.

Bennett, H. E.

Birkebak, R. C.

Brown, G. S.

G. S. Brown, “Scattering from a class of randomly rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 17, 1274–1280 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Celli, V.

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

Depew, C. A.

Friberg, A. T.

García, N.

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “A detailed study of the scattering of scalar waves from random rough surfaces,” Opt. Acta 28, 1651–1672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

García-Molina, R.

R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, C. H.

J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gray, P. F.

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z. H.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hill, N. R.

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Application of the phase-perturbation technique to randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 2285–2294 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Investigation of a surface field phase perturbation techniques for scattering from rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 20, 161–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

Knotts, M. E.

Kong, J. A.

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

Leskova, T. A.

R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. Q.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luna, R. E.

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

J. A. Saénchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Limits of validity of three perturbation theories of the coherent scattering of light from a one-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1547–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Theoretical studies of the enhanced backscattering of light from one-dimensional randomly rough metal surfaces by the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition,” Physica A 207, 302–314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Shen, A. A. Maradudin, “Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 4234–4240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, “Electromagnetic surface excitations on rough surfaces,” in Electromagnetic Surface Excitations, R. F. Wallis, G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 57–131.

Marvin, A.

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McGurn, A. R.

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, E. R.

J. A. Saénchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Limits of validity of three perturbation theories of the coherent scattering of light from a one-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1547–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Theoretical studies of the enhanced backscattering of light from one-dimensional randomly rough metal surfaces by the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition,” Physica A 207, 302–314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. A. O’Donnell, E. R. Méndez, “Experimental study of scattering from characterized random surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1194–1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Michel, T.

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, A. T. Friberg, “Scattering from slightly rough random surfaces: a detailed study on the validity of the small perturbation method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1185–1201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “A detailed study of the scattering of scalar waves from random rough surfaces,” Opt. Acta 28, 1651–1672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 245.

O’Donnell, K. A.

Ogilvy, J. A.

J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, Bristol, 1991), p. 38.

Padlaka, V. G.

I. N. Shkliarevskii, V. G. Padlaka, “Measurement of optical constants of copper, gold and nickel in the infrared spectral region,” Opt. Spektrosk. 6, 78–84 (1959).

Porteus, J. O.

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh , “On the dynamical theory of gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 79, 399–416 (1907).

Lord Rayleigh , The Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1896), Vol. 2, pp. 89–96.

Rice, S. O.

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Saénchez-Gil, J. A.

Sant, A. J.

Serati, S. A.

J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, A. A. Maradudin, “Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 4234–4240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shin, R. T.

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

Shkliarevskii, I. N.

I. N. Shkliarevskii, V. G. Padlaka, “Measurement of optical constants of copper, gold and nickel in the infrared spectral region,” Opt. Spektrosk. 6, 78–84 (1959).

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1987), p. 72.

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Toigo, F.

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Veysoglu, M. E.

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

Weir, R. D.

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, “Optical estimation of statistics of surface roughness from light scattering measurements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 269–287 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Winebrenner, D. P.

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Investigation of a surface field phase perturbation techniques for scattering from rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 20, 161–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Application of the phase-perturbation technique to randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 2285–2294 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yuch, H. A.

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

Ann. Phys. (New York) (1)

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (New York) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Commun. Pure Appl. Math. (1)

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

M. E. Veysoglu, H. A. Yuch, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 267–280 (1991).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, J. Q. Lu, Z. H. Gu, “Enhanced backscattering due to total internal reflection at a dielectric–air interface,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Opt. Acta (2)

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “A detailed study of the scattering of scalar waves from random rough surfaces,” Opt. Acta 28, 1651–1672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. C. Stover, S. A. Serati, C. H. Gillespie, “Calculation of surface statistics from light scatter,” Opt. Eng. 23, 406–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. T. Welford, “Optical estimation of statistics of surface roughness from light scattering measurements,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 269–287 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

I. N. Shkliarevskii, V. G. Padlaka, “Measurement of optical constants of copper, gold and nickel in the infrared spectral region,” Opt. Spektrosk. 6, 78–84 (1959).

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. García-Molina, A. A. Maradudin, T. A. Leskova, “The impedance boundary condition for a curved surface,” Phys. Rep. 194, 351–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Shen, A. A. Maradudin, “Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 4234–4240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Toigo, A. Marvin, V. Celli, N. R. Hill, “Optical properties of rough surfaces: general theory and the small roughness limit,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 5618–5626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Physica A (1)

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, “Theoretical studies of the enhanced backscattering of light from one-dimensional randomly rough metal surfaces by the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition,” Physica A 207, 302–314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

Lord Rayleigh , “On the dynamical theory of gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 79, 399–416 (1907).

Radio Sci. (2)

D. P. Winebrenner, A. Ishimaru, “Investigation of a surface field phase perturbation techniques for scattering from rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 20, 161–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Brown, “Scattering from a class of randomly rough surfaces,” Radio Sci. 17, 1274–1280 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

A. A. Maradudin, R. E. Luna, E. R. Méndez, “The Brewster effect for a one-dimensional random surface,” Waves Random Media 3, 51–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, Bristol, 1991), p. 38.

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 245.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1987), p. 72.

Ref. 4, p. 73.

Ref. 5, p. 238.

A. A. Maradudin, “Electromagnetic surface excitations on rough surfaces,” in Electromagnetic Surface Excitations, R. F. Wallis, G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 57–131.

Lord Rayleigh , The Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1896), Vol. 2, pp. 89–96.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics