Abstract

We describe the effect of UV photobleaching of poled polymer and silica films and the application of UV photobleaching to waveguide-type optical devices. Disperse Red 1-doped poled polymer and silica films with large and stable second-order nonlinearity were used as nonlinear optical materials. We investigated the mechanism of UV photobleaching of poled films by the changes in absorption spectrum and nonlinearity and refractive index. Moreover, simple fabrication of both the channel waveguide and the χ(2) diffraction grating based on UV photobleaching is demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of non-linear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, “Normal-mode analysis of noncollinearly phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled-polymer thin-film waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1221–1229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, R. Burzynski, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(s)-prolinol-doped sol-gel processed materials,” Chem. Mater. 4, 851–855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (6)

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (6)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer–dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733–741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, R.

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bert, M. E.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bethke, S. J.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

Bratz, A.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, R. Burzynski, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(s)-prolinol-doped sol-gel processed materials,” Chem. Mater. 4, 851–855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Canto-Said, E. J.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hampsch, H. L.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

Hayden, L. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B. G.

Hikita, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, J. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ishigame, Y.

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A. K.

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, R. J.

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jungbauer, D.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Koike, Y.

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kowel, S. T.

Kumar, J.

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kunioka, S.

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, S.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, G. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Looser, H.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, R.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mohlmann, G. R.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Nakayama, H.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

H. Hayashi, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and large second-order nonlinearity in poled silica films doped with Disperse Red 1 in high concentration,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2264–2266 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naomichi, O.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Nijhuis, S.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Nishihara, H.

Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, Y.

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, M.

Okada, A.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of non-linear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

Ore, F. R.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Pasillas, P. L.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, R. Burzynski, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(s)-prolinol-doped sol-gel processed materials,” Chem. Mater. 4, 851–855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reck, B.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauter, G. F.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sen, A.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seppen, C. J. E.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, “Normal-mode analysis of noncollinearly phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled-polymer thin-film waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1221–1229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sieverdes, F.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, A. Bratz, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18,114–18,118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stahelin, M.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

H. Hayashi, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and large second-order nonlinearity in poled silica films doped with Disperse Red 1 in high concentration,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2264–2266 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, R. Aizawa, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation by Cerenkov-type phase matching in a poled polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7249–7252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhara, T.

Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomaru, S.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomova, N.

Torkelson, J. M.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of non-linear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of non-linear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. Y.

I. Teraoka, D. Jungbauer, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, C. G. Willson, “Stability of nonlinear optical characteristics and dielectric relaxations of poled amorphous polymers with main-chain chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2568–2576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, R. Burzynski, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(s)-prolinol-doped sol-gel processed materials,” Chem. Mater. 4, 851–855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large stable photoinduced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Traveling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929–931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, D. M. Burland, M. E. Bert, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, W. Volksen, C. A. Walsh, “Re-evaluation of the thermal stability of optically nonlinear polymeric guest–host systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1626–1628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, R. Burzynski, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(s)-prolinol-doped sol-gel processed materials,” Chem. Mater. 4, 851–855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jeng, Y. M. Chen, A. K. Jain, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Second order optical nonlinearity on a modified sol-gel system at 100 °C,” Chem. Mater. 4, 972–975 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037–1041 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, D. Y. Yoon, “Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559–2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Macromolecules (1)

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23, 3640–3647 (1990).
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M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, O. Naomichi, “Guest-host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of U polymers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change of absorption spectrum of poled film by UV exposure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second-order nonlinear optical property as a function of UV exposure time for each poled film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV exposure time versus refractive index of the TM mode for each film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscopic photograph of the fabricated channel waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microscopic photograph of the fabricated χ(2) grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Second-harmonic intensity versus lateral position of the χ(2) diffraction grating.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscopic photograph of the fabricated χ(2) grating (2 μm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fabrication of the channel waveguide type QPM device.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear Optical Coefficients and Lifetime

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