Abstract

Buried channel optical waveguides were fabricated from fluorinated polyimides. They operated in single mode and showed an optical loss of less than 0.3 and 0.7 dB/cm for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, at a wavelength of 1.3 μm. Moreover, these waveguides had high heat and moisture resistance; the optical loss did not significantly change after heating at 380 °C for 1 h or after exposure to 85% relative humidity at 85 °C for over 200 h.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Izawa, “Plastic planar waveguides for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Optical Communication and the Eight International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1991), pp. 97–100.
  4. B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Fabrication of large-core, high-Δ optical waveguides in polymers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1041–1046 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).
  12. R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).
  13. T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Takahara, S. Koike, S. Yamaguchi, H. Tomimuro, “Optical waveguide interconnections for opto-electronic multichip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, R. T. Chen, ed., Proc. SPIE1849, 70–78 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, T. Maruno, S. Sasaki, “Flexible and heat-resistant film waveguides of fluorinated polyimides,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 197–198.
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1980 (1)

Ando, S.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, T. Maruno, S. Sasaki, “Flexible and heat-resistant film waveguides of fluorinated polyimides,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 197–198.
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D. A.

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Fan, B.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feger, C.

Fischbeck, G.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

Flagello, D.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

Gelorme, J. D.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. M.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

Hasuda, Y.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Howse, J. W.

Ichikawa, T.

Imamura, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Izawa, T.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Izawa, “Plastic planar waveguides for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Optical Communication and the Eight International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1991), pp. 97–100.

Kagami, M.

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, Y.

Kato, S.

Keil, N.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koike, S.

H. Takahara, S. Koike, S. Yamaguchi, H. Tomimuro, “Optical waveguide interconnections for opto-electronic multichip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, R. T. Chen, ed., Proc. SPIE1849, 70–78 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kostrzewa, C.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

Krchnavek, R. R.

Kurokawa, T.

Lalk, G. R.

Maruno, T.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, T. Maruno, S. Sasaki, “Flexible and heat-resistant film waveguides of fluorinated polyimides,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 197–198.
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, M.

Matsuura, T.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, T. Maruno, S. Sasaki, “Flexible and heat-resistant film waveguides of fluorinated polyimides,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 197–198.
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

Nishi, S.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Optysko, M. M.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

Reuter, R.

Sasaki, S.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, T. Maruno, S. Sasaki, “Flexible and heat-resistant film waveguides of fluorinated polyimides,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 197–198.
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schüppert, B.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, “Novel waveguide structuring concept for polarization-independent single-mode polymer integrated optical devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 373–374 (1996).

Shacklette, L. W.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Speth, A.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stengel, K. M. T.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Strebel, B.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, H.

H. Takahara, S. Koike, S. Yamaguchi, H. Tomimuro, “Optical waveguide interconnections for opto-electronic multichip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, R. T. Chen, ed., Proc. SPIE1849, 70–78 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

Takato, N.

Tomimuro, H.

H. Takahara, S. Koike, S. Yamaguchi, H. Tomimuro, “Optical waveguide interconnections for opto-electronic multichip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, R. T. Chen, ed., Proc. SPIE1849, 70–78 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Usui, M.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Xu, C.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Yamada, N.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control for polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides,” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

H. Takahara, S. Koike, S. Yamaguchi, H. Tomimuro, “Optical waveguide interconnections for opto-electronic multichip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, R. T. Chen, ed., Proc. SPIE1849, 70–78 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, F.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss, heat resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. H.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Yoshimura, R.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, C.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of fluorinated polyimides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices of polyimides and their copolyimides for TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 1.3 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the fabrication process for optical waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical cross-sectional micrograph of fabricated fluorinated polyimide waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical-loss dependence on the wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical NFP observed by an IR camera at a wavelength of 1.3 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Insertion loss dependence on the waveguide length for TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical-loss dependence on the heating temperature of the waveguides fabricated on silicon substrates for TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of the heat-resistant temperature (T h ) and the birefringence on the CTE difference.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical-loss dependence on the exposure time to 85% relative humidity at 85 °C for waveguides on silicon substrates.

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