Abstract

We discuss spectrotemporal measurements of laser diode pulses performed with a streak camera and a grating monochromator to yield a precise evaluation of chirping effects in Q-switched multimode emissions. We experimentally illustrate several causes of errors, depending on the grating size and period as well as on the adjustment of the collimating lens at the monochromator output. An analytical formula is derived that allows us to relate the chirp amplitude to the inclination of the modal structures in the streak image. Two configurations are proposed for a practical determination of the chirp amplitude in multimode emissions. Illustrations are provided with Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes that exhibit chirp amplitudes larger than the mode spacing.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Tsuchiya, “Picosecond streak camera and its applications (comprehensive information on streak cameras),” Hamamatsu Tech. Bull. Picosecond 14, 1–18 (1983).
  2. C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, “Shaping and analysis of picosecond light pulses,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, Chap. 2.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. L. Gomes, V. L. da Silva, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of nonlinear frequency chirp of Raman radiation in single-mode optical fibers using a spectral window method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 373–379 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Sogawa, Y. Arakawa, “Picosecond lasing dynamics of gain-switched quantum well lasers and its dependence on quantum well structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1648–1654 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, “Analysis of modal chirp in Q-switched semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1856–1858 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, “Picosecond characteristics of a spectrograph measured by a streak camera/video readout system,” Opt. Commun. 35, 451–454 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (3)

T. Sogawa, Y. Arakawa, “Picosecond lasing dynamics of gain-switched quantum well lasers and its dependence on quantum well structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1648–1654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, “Analysis of modal chirp in Q-switched semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1856–1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Y. Tsuchiya, “Picosecond streak camera and its applications (comprehensive information on streak cameras),” Hamamatsu Tech. Bull. Picosecond 14, 1–18 (1983).

1980 (1)

N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, “Picosecond characteristics of a spectrograph measured by a streak camera/video readout system,” Opt. Commun. 35, 451–454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, “Picosecond characteristics of a spectrograph measured by a streak camera/video readout system,” Opt. Commun. 35, 451–454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

T. Sogawa, Y. Arakawa, “Picosecond lasing dynamics of gain-switched quantum well lasers and its dependence on quantum well structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1648–1654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Colombeau, B.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, “Shaping and analysis of picosecond light pulses,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, Chap. 2.
[CrossRef]

da Silva, V. L.

Downey, P. M.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, “Shaping and analysis of picosecond light pulses,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, Chap. 2.
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, V. L. da Silva, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of nonlinear frequency chirp of Raman radiation in single-mode optical fibers using a spectral window method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 373–379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lourtioz, J.-M.

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, “Analysis of modal chirp in Q-switched semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1856–1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, N. H.

N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, “Picosecond characteristics of a spectrograph measured by a streak camera/video readout system,” Opt. Commun. 35, 451–454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sogawa, T.

T. Sogawa, Y. Arakawa, “Picosecond lasing dynamics of gain-switched quantum well lasers and its dependence on quantum well structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1648–1654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stelmakh, N.

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, “Analysis of modal chirp in Q-switched semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1856–1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

A. S. L. Gomes, V. L. da Silva, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of nonlinear frequency chirp of Raman radiation in single-mode optical fibers using a spectral window method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 373–379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

Y. Tsuchiya, “Picosecond streak camera and its applications (comprehensive information on streak cameras),” Hamamatsu Tech. Bull. Picosecond 14, 1–18 (1983).

Tucker, R. S.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vampouille, M.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, “Shaping and analysis of picosecond light pulses,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, Chap. 2.
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Wiesenfeld, R. S. Tucker, P. M. Downey, “Picosecond measurement of chirp in gain-switched single-mode injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1307–1309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Barthelemy, “Ultrashort pulse generation from single-mode Q-switched AlGaAs laser diodes with fiber compression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 624–626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, “Analysis of modal chirp in Q-switched semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1856–1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hamamatsu Tech. Bull. Picosecond (1)

Y. Tsuchiya, “Picosecond streak camera and its applications (comprehensive information on streak cameras),” Hamamatsu Tech. Bull. Picosecond 14, 1–18 (1983).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Sogawa, Y. Arakawa, “Picosecond lasing dynamics of gain-switched quantum well lasers and its dependence on quantum well structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1648–1654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, “Picosecond characteristics of a spectrograph measured by a streak camera/video readout system,” Opt. Commun. 35, 451–454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, “Shaping and analysis of picosecond light pulses,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, Chap. 2.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction of chirped optical pulses by a grating and a formation of the diffracted image at the entrance slit of the camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup with a high-resolution grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Streak images of chirped multimode pulses obtained with the high-resolution grating and for different values of the defocusing parameter. Top images (from left to right): Δf = 0, -1, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -13 mm. Bottom images (from left to right): Δf = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 mm. The laser mode spacing (∼4 Å) corresponds to the separation between the centers of two consecutive bright fringes. The modal chirp measured separately in injection-seeding experiments9 is typically between 11 and 15 Å.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup with a two-groove grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Streak image of chirped multimode pulses obtained with the two-groove grating. A 2π phase shift corresponds to a wavelength shift equal to the laser mode spacing (≈3 Å).

Equations (1)

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Δ y obs Δ t obs = ( nf / d ) ( Δ λ / Δ t imp ) + Θ ( c / f ) Δ f 1 + Θ .

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