Abstract

A three-plate modular, polymer, and planar waveguiding star coupler for large-core polymer fibers is proposed and an 8 × 8 version is demonstrated. The proposed structure can be mass produced by use of injection-molding technology at a significantly low cost. Power measurements indicate that a performance of 1.9-dB power fluctuation among all receiving channels is possible at the expense of tolerating a 3.1-dB excess power loss. Trade-offs among device compactness, overall power efficiency, and channel fluctuation are discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.
  3. T. Ishgure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Large-core high-bandwidth polymer optical fiber and its applications,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, paper CThD5, Vol. 7 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  4. Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and optical signals using embedded mirrors inside polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Robinson, M. J. O’Mahony, “Performance of an optical backplane bus for switch interconnection,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143, 237–243 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.
  9. C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1996

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and optical signals using embedded mirrors inside polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Robinson, M. J. O’Mahony, “Performance of an optical backplane bus for switch interconnection,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.

Dam, T. Q.

K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fasanella, K.

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, H.

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

Ishgure, T.

T. Ishgure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Large-core high-bandwidth polymer optical fiber and its applications,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, paper CThD5, Vol. 7 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

Kaminov, I. P.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kister, R. C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

T. Ishgure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Large-core high-bandwidth polymer optical fiber and its applications,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, paper CThD5, Vol. 7 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and optical signals using embedded mirrors inside polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.

Liu, Y. S.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.

Nakaya, S.

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

T. Ishgure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Large-core high-bandwidth polymer optical fiber and its applications,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, paper CThD5, Vol. 7 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

O’Mahony, M. J.

A. Robinson, M. J. O’Mahony, “Performance of an optical backplane bus for switch interconnection,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, Y.

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, A.

A. Robinson, M. J. O’Mahony, “Performance of an optical backplane bus for switch interconnection,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and optical signals using embedded mirrors inside polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. A.

K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, S.

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

Yasu, M.

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron.

A. Robinson, M. J. O’Mahony, “Performance of an optical backplane bus for switch interconnection,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

K. A. Williams, T. Q. Dam, D. Du, “A media-access protocol for time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive star networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 560–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminov, R. C. Kister, “Efficient multichannel integration optics star couplers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 241–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H. Okazaki, Y. Ohmori, K. Kato, “Fabrication of large scale integrated-optic N × N star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1032–1035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, M. Yasu, Y. Hibino, “Fabrication of wavelength-insensitive 8 × 8 star coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 61–63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and optical signals using embedded mirrors inside polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Yamazaki, H. Hotta, S. Nakaya, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, “A 2.5 Gb/s 100 m GRIN plastic optical fiber data link at 650 nm wavelength,” in Graded Index POF (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 98–101.

T. Ishgure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Large-core high-bandwidth polymer optical fiber and its applications,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, paper CThD5, Vol. 7 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

C. Zhao, J. Liu, R. T. Chen, Y. S. Liu, “Hybrid optoelectronic backplane bus for multiprocessor-based computing systems,” in Proc. MPPOI’96 (IEEE Computer Society Press, Piscataway, N.J.), pp. 313–320.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic design of the three-plate modular POF planar star coupler. W, the width of the waveguiding plate; R, the length of the waveguiding plate; Δθ, the angular channel spacing between two consecutive POF channels; and θ, the overall angular span of N = 8 POF channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of the planar waveguide length, the measured overall excess power loss, and the channel fluctuation versus the star coupler’s fill parameter β.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of a sample 8 × 8 POF planar star coupler (β = 0.5). (b) Two eye diagrams (2 ns/division) of 155-Mbit/s data transmitted through the highest and the lowest receiving power channels of the coupler.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Power Performance of an 8 × 8 POF Planar Star Coupler

Equations (1)

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R = Nd 2   sin - 1 β NA ,

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