Abstract

Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) is currently performed clinically as an effective treatment for end-stage glaucoma. We develop a theoretical model for the analysis of optical attenuation phenomena during TSCPC as a basis for selection of an optimal wavelength. A multilayered Monte Carlo model was developed to calculate the fluence and the rate of heat generation in each tissue layer for the wavelengths of Nd:YAG, diode, ruby, krypton yellow, and argon lasers. Of the five wavelengths under study, our theoretical results suggest that the diode laser wavelength offers the best penetration through the conjunctiva, sclera, and ciliary muscle and highest absorption within the ciliary pigment epithelium.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Weve, “Die Zyklodiatermie das Corpus Ciliare bei Glaukom,” Zenterlabl Ophthalmol. 97, 562–569 (1933).
  2. D. S. Walton, W. M. Grant, “Penetrating cyclodiathermy for filtration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 83, 47–48 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
    [PubMed]
  4. F. M. Polack, A. de Roetth, “Effect of freezing on the ciliary body (cyclocryotherapy),” Invest. Ophthalmol. 3, 164 (1964).
    [PubMed]
  5. P. F. Lee, O. Pomerantzeff, “Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation of rabbit eyes: an experimental approach to glaucoma surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 911–920 (1971).
    [PubMed]
  6. H. Beckman, J. Waeltermann, “Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 788–795 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 30, 111–119 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  9. M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  10. H. L. Hennis, W. C. Stewart, “Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113, 81–85 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  11. A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Nemati, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of conjunctiva, sclera, and ciliary body and their consequences for transscleral cyclophotocoagulation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3321–3327 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).
  15. W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
    [PubMed]
  16. B. Nemati, “Transscleral argon cyclophotocoagulation: a preclinical feasibility study,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas, Austin, Tex., 1995).
  17. E. B. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).
  18. L. Wang, S. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 73–100.
  19. G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  20. I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  21. C. Hampton, M. B. Shields, “Transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: a histologic study of human autopsy eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1121–1123 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).
  24. T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992 (2)

H. L. Hennis, W. C. Stewart, “Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113, 81–85 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
[PubMed]

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 30, 111–119 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. Hampton, M. B. Shields, “Transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: a histologic study of human autopsy eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1121–1123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

1984 (2)

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

H. Beckman, J. Waeltermann, “Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 788–795 (1984).
[PubMed]

1971 (1)

P. F. Lee, O. Pomerantzeff, “Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation of rabbit eyes: an experimental approach to glaucoma surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 911–920 (1971).
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

D. S. Walton, W. M. Grant, “Penetrating cyclodiathermy for filtration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 83, 47–48 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

F. M. Polack, A. de Roetth, “Effect of freezing on the ciliary body (cyclocryotherapy),” Invest. Ophthalmol. 3, 164 (1964).
[PubMed]

1962 (2)

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

E. B. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1948 (1)

G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
[PubMed]

1933 (1)

H. Weve, “Die Zyklodiatermie das Corpus Ciliare bei Glaukom,” Zenterlabl Ophthalmol. 97, 562–569 (1933).

Allingham, R. R.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

Alter, C. A.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Barbar, A.

G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
[PubMed]

Beckman, H.

H. Beckman, J. Waeltermann, “Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 788–795 (1984).
[PubMed]

Belcher, C. D.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bellows, A. R.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettner, E. B.

E. B. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Breffeilh, L. A.

G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
[PubMed]

Chan, G.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Conway, M. D.

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

de Roetth, A.

F. M. Polack, A. de Roetth, “Effect of freezing on the ciliary body (cyclocryotherapy),” Invest. Ophthalmol. 3, 164 (1964).
[PubMed]

Dlugos, C.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, A. P.

A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).

Feuer, W. J.

M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
[PubMed]

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Grajewski, A. L.

M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
[PubMed]

Grant, W. M.

D. S. Walton, W. M. Grant, “Penetrating cyclodiathermy for filtration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 83, 47–48 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, D. P.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Haik, G. M.

G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
[PubMed]

Ham, W. T.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Hampton, C.

C. Hampton, M. B. Shields, “Transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: a histologic study of human autopsy eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1121–1123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennis, H. L.

H. L. Hennis, W. C. Stewart, “Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113, 81–85 (1992).
[PubMed]

Immonen, I.

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
[PubMed]

Jacobson, J. J.

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S.

L. Wang, S. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 73–100.

Jacques, S. L.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Keijzer, M.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

King, M. H.

A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).

Kivela, T.

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Latina, M. A.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

Lee, P. F.

P. F. Lee, O. Pomerantzeff, “Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation of rabbit eyes: an experimental approach to glaucoma surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 911–920 (1971).
[PubMed]

Lin, J.

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

Nemati, B.

B. Nemati, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of conjunctiva, sclera, and ciliary body and their consequences for transscleral cyclophotocoagulation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3321–3327 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nemati, “Transscleral argon cyclophotocoagulation: a preclinical feasibility study,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas, Austin, Tex., 1995).

Noecker, R. J.

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuffer, R.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyman, G. A.

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

Polack, F. M.

F. M. Polack, A. de Roetth, “Effect of freezing on the ciliary body (cyclocryotherapy),” Invest. Ophthalmol. 3, 164 (1964).
[PubMed]

Pomerantzeff, O.

P. F. Lee, O. Pomerantzeff, “Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation of rabbit eyes: an experimental approach to glaucoma surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 911–920 (1971).
[PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Puliafito, C. A.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 30, 111–119 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puska, P.

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
[PubMed]

Raichand, M.

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

Raitta, C.

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
[PubMed]

Reidy, W. T.

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, D. W.

A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).

Rylander, H. G.

Schmidt, F. H.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 30, 111–119 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, M. B.

C. Hampton, M. B. Shields, “Transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: a histologic study of human autopsy eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1121–1123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shingleton, B. J.

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
[PubMed]

Stewart, W. C.

H. L. Hennis, W. C. Stewart, “Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113, 81–85 (1992).
[PubMed]

Tarkkanen, A.

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waeltermann, J.

H. Beckman, J. Waeltermann, “Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 788–795 (1984).
[PubMed]

Walton, D. S.

D. S. Walton, W. M. Grant, “Penetrating cyclodiathermy for filtration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 83, 47–48 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 73–100.

Welch, A. J.

B. Nemati, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of conjunctiva, sclera, and ciliary body and their consequences for transscleral cyclophotocoagulation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3321–3327 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weve, H.

H. Weve, “Die Zyklodiatermie das Corpus Ciliare bei Glaukom,” Zenterlabl Ophthalmol. 97, 562–569 (1933).

Williams, R. C.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

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E. B. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Wright, M. M.

M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (4)

G. M. Haik, L. A. Breffeilh, A. Barbar, “Beta irradiation as a possible therapeutic agent in glaucoma: an experimental study with the report of a clinical case,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31, 945–952 (1948).
[PubMed]

P. F. Lee, O. Pomerantzeff, “Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation of rabbit eyes: an experimental approach to glaucoma surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 911–920 (1971).
[PubMed]

H. Beckman, J. Waeltermann, “Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 788–795 (1984).
[PubMed]

H. L. Hennis, W. C. Stewart, “Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113, 81–85 (1992).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

T. Kivela, P. Puska, C. Raitta, I. Immonen, A. Tarkkanen, “Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 1447–1453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, J. J. Jacobson, C. A. Puliafito, R. J. Noecker, W. T. Reidy, “Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 1152–1157 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. (1)

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Laser cyclophotocoagulation,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 30, 111–119 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (3)

F. M. Polack, A. de Roetth, “Effect of freezing on the ciliary body (cyclocryotherapy),” Invest. Ophthalmol. 3, 164 (1964).
[PubMed]

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. P. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, “The relative absorption of thermal energy in retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340–347 (1962).
[PubMed]

E. B. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Lasers Life Sci. (1)

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Surg. (2)

M. M. Wright, A. L. Grajewski, W. J. Feuer, “Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. 22, 279–283 (1991).
[PubMed]

G. A. Peyman, M. D. Conway, M. Raichand, J. Lin, “Histopathologic studies on transscleral argon-krypton photocoagulation with an exolaser probe,” Ophthalmic Surg. 15, 496–501 (1984).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

I. Immonen, P. Puska, C. Raitta, “Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 101, 876–882 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, A. R. Bellows, B. J. Shingleton, M. A. Latina, R. R. Allingham, C. D. Belcher, C. A. Puliafito, “Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results,” Ophthalmology 99, 1089–1094 (1992).
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A. P. Ferry, M. H. King, D. W. Richards, “Histopathologic observations of human eyes following neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 315–331 (1995).

Zenterlabl Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Weve, “Die Zyklodiatermie das Corpus Ciliare bei Glaukom,” Zenterlabl Ophthalmol. 97, 562–569 (1933).

Other (2)

L. Wang, S. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 73–100.

B. Nemati, “Transscleral argon cyclophotocoagulation: a preclinical feasibility study,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas, Austin, Tex., 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multilayered tissue structure involved in TSCPC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluence rate (watts per square centimeter) as a function of radial distance r (centimeters) and depth z (centimeters) for λ = 1050 nm (approximating the dominant Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluence rate (watts per square centimeter) as a function of radial distance r (centimeters) and depth z (centimeters) for λ = 500 nm (approximating the dominant argon laser wavelength of 514 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluence rate (watts per square centimeter) along the z axis directly under the beam at r = 0.0015 cm for the wavelengths of (a) 500 nm (approximating the dominant argon laser wavelength of 514 nm), (b) 850 nm (GaAs diode laser wavelength), and (c) 1050 nm (approximating the Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm) for a flat incident beam profile (radius, 300 μm; total power, 1 W).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rate of heat generation (watts per cubic centimeter) directly under the beam as a function of depth z (centimeters) for wavelengths: (a) 500 nm (approximating the dominant argon laser wavelength of 514 nm), (b) 850 nm (GaAs diode laser wavelength), and (c) 1050 nm (approximating the Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm) for a flat incident beam profile (beam radius, 0.03 cm; total power, 1 W). The radial distance was held fixed at 0.0015 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Probability of photon absorption for each layer of the model for Nd:YAG, diode, ruby, krypton, and argon laser wavelengths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties of Rabbit Model as used in the Monte Carlo Simulationa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Fraction of Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission for the Multilayered Tissue Structure for the Five Wavelengths of 500, 550, 700, 850, and 1050 nm

Equations (1)

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W = mW 0 if   ξ     1 / m if   ξ   >   1 / m .

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