Abstract

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was utilized for the quantitative analysis of double-stranded (ds) DNA amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI), which intercalates into ds-DNA but does not form a complex with single-stranded (ss) DNA, was added to a DNA solution after amplification by PCR. When the solution was mixed, including ds-DNA–DAPI complexes and free DAPI with silver colloid sol, only free DAPI was adsorbed on the colloid surface. The dye on the colloid gave very intense SERS signals with excitation at 514.5 nm, whereas DAPI engaging in the intercalation with ds-DNA did not show any SERS signal. The SERS spectrum of DAPI on the colloid showed a strong band at 1610 cm-1 due to the C═N stretching mode, and a linear relationship was observed between the peak intensity of the C═N stretching band and the concentration of free DAPI. Therefore one can determine the concentration of free DAPI by the SERS measurement. The more ds-DNA there is in the solution, the less free DAPI there is. Thus it is possible to quantitatively analyze the ds-DNA amplified by PCR indirectly by using SERS. The correlation coefficient between the peak intensity of the C═N stretching band and the concentration of ds-DNA amplified by PCR was calculated to be 0.988 for a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.3 mg/ml.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Koglin, J. M. Sequaris, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of biomolecules,” Top. Curr. Chem. 134, 1–20 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. M. Cotton, “The applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering to biological systems,” in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 91.
  3. R. F. Paisley, M. D. Morris, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of small biological molecules,” Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. 11, 111–140 (1988).
  4. T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. R. Nabiev, K. V. Sokolov, M. Manfait, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and its biomedical applications,” in Biomolecular Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1993), part A, pp. 267–338.
  6. I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Fabian, P. Anzenbacher, “New developments in Raman spectroscopy of biological systems,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 125–143 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Koglin, J.-M. Sequaris, “Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 141, 405–409 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Curley, O. Siiman, “Conformation and orientation of the haptens, 2,4-dinitrophenyl ammoniac’s, on colloid silver from surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 4, 1021–1032 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Thornton, R. K. Force, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of nucleic acid compounds and their mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1522–1526 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Sokolov, P. Hodorchenko, A. Petukhov, L. Nabiev, G. Chumanov, T. M. Cotton, “Contributions of short-range and classical electromagnetic mechanisms to surface-enhanced Raman scattering from several types of biomolecules adsorbed on cold-deposited island films,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 515–522 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Brabec, K. Niki, “Raman scattering from nucleic acids adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Biophys. Chem. 23, 63–70 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).
  19. K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  26. I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Kournberg, DNA Replication (Freeman, New York, 1980).
  30. M. Singer, P. Berg, Genes and Genomes (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1991).
  31. X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

H. Fabian, P. Anzenbacher, “New developments in Raman spectroscopy of biological systems,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 125–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, P. Hodorchenko, A. Petukhov, L. Nabiev, G. Chumanov, T. M. Cotton, “Contributions of short-range and classical electromagnetic mechanisms to surface-enhanced Raman scattering from several types of biomolecules adsorbed on cold-deposited island films,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 515–522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (3)

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Thornton, R. K. Force, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of nucleic acid compounds and their mixtures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1522–1526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

D. Curley, O. Siiman, “Conformation and orientation of the haptens, 2,4-dinitrophenyl ammoniac’s, on colloid silver from surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 4, 1021–1032 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Paisley, M. D. Morris, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of small biological molecules,” Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. 11, 111–140 (1988).

1986 (2)

E. Koglin, J. M. Sequaris, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of biomolecules,” Top. Curr. Chem. 134, 1–20 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Koglin, J.-M. Sequaris, “Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 141, 405–409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

V. Brabec, K. Niki, “Raman scattering from nucleic acids adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Biophys. Chem. 23, 63–70 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ahern, A. M.

T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anzenbacher, P.

H. Fabian, P. Anzenbacher, “New developments in Raman spectroscopy of biological systems,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 125–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aubard, J.

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berg, P.

M. Singer, P. Berg, Genes and Genomes (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1991).

Blatchford, C. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, V.

V. Brabec, K. Niki, “Raman scattering from nucleic acids adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Biophys. Chem. 23, 63–70 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. M.

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chourpa, I.

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chumanov, G.

Chumanov, G. D.

T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, T. M.

K. Sokolov, P. Hodorchenko, A. Petukhov, L. Nabiev, G. Chumanov, T. M. Cotton, “Contributions of short-range and classical electromagnetic mechanisms to surface-enhanced Raman scattering from several types of biomolecules adsorbed on cold-deposited island films,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 515–522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Cotton, “The applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering to biological systems,” in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 91.

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Curley, D.

D. Curley, O. Siiman, “Conformation and orientation of the haptens, 2,4-dinitrophenyl ammoniac’s, on colloid silver from surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 4, 1021–1032 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X.

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, E. S.

I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, R. G.

I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, H.

H. Fabian, P. Anzenbacher, “New developments in Raman spectroscopy of biological systems,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 125–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feis, A.

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

Force, R. K.

Garrell, R. L.

T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hanazaki, I.

H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herne, T. M.

T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hodorchenko, P.

Houck, K.

T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J-. H.

T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, E.

E. Koglin, J. M. Sequaris, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of biomolecules,” Top. Curr. Chem. 134, 1–20 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Koglin, J.-M. Sequaris, “Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 141, 405–409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kournberg, A.

A. Kournberg, DNA Replication (Freeman, New York, 1980).

Lavelle, F.

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

Lee, N.-S.

H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Levi, G.

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malfoy, B.

J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Manfait, M.

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, K. V. Sokolov, M. Manfait, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and its biomedical applications,” in Biomolecular Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1993), part A, pp. 267–338.

Mantini, A. R.

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

Marsault, J. P.

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marzocchi, M. P.

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

Morjani, H.

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. D.

R. F. Paisley, M. D. Morris, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of small biological molecules,” Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. 11, 111–140 (1988).

Nabiev, I.

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nabiev, I. R.

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, K. V. Sokolov, M. Manfait, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and its biomedical applications,” in Biomolecular Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1993), part A, pp. 267–338.

Nabiev, L.

Ni, F.

F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, K.

V. Brabec, K. Niki, “Raman scattering from nucleic acids adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Biophys. Chem. 23, 63–70 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, Y.

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paisley, R. F.

R. F. Paisley, M. D. Morris, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of small biological molecules,” Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. 11, 111–140 (1988).

Pantigny, J.

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petukhov, A.

Pohle, W.

K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reglinski, J.

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riou, J. F.

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

Rohr, T. E.

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rospendowski, B. N.

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Savchenko, V. A.

I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S. G.

T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwaller, M. A.

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sequaris, J. M.

E. Koglin, J. M. Sequaris, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of biomolecules,” Top. Curr. Chem. 134, 1–20 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sequaris, J.-M.

E. Koglin, J.-M. Sequaris, “Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 141, 405–409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, R.

F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siiman, O.

D. Curley, O. Siiman, “Conformation and orientation of the haptens, 2,4-dinitrophenyl ammoniac’s, on colloid silver from surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 4, 1021–1032 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singer, M.

M. Singer, P. Berg, Genes and Genomes (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1991).

Smith, W. E.

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smulevich, G.

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

Sokolov, K.

Sokolov, K. V.

I. R. Nabiev, K. V. Sokolov, M. Manfait, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and its biomedical applications,” in Biomolecular Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1993), part A, pp. 267–338.

Stokes, D. L.

T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takama, T.

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tarcha, P. J.

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thornton, J.

Van Duyne, R. P.

T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, Y.

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H.-S.

H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

T. E. Rohr, T. M. Cotton, F. Ni, P. J. Tarcha, “Immunoassay employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 182, 388–398 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “Novel enzyme-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering of enzyme reaction product,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1492–1495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Ni, R. Sheng, T. M. Cotton, “Flow injection analysis and real-time detection of RNA bases by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1958–1963 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vo-Dinh, K. Houck, D. L. Stokes, “Surface-enhanced Raman gene probes,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3379–3383 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biophys. Chem. (1)

V. Brabec, K. Niki, “Raman scattering from nucleic acids adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Biophys. Chem. 23, 63–70 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Morjani, J. F. Riou, I. R. Nabiev, F. Lavelle, M. Manfait, “Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 53, 4784–4789 (1993).
[PubMed]

Eur. Biophys. J. (2)

I. R. Nabiev, H. Morjani, M. Manfait, “Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Eur. Biophys. J. 19, 311–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Rospendowski, J. M. Campbell, J. Reglinski, W. E. Smith, “Direct spectroscopic determination of functional sulfhydryl groups on intact cell surfaces by SERRS,” Eur. Biophys. J. 21, 257–263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

FEBS Lett. (1)

J.-M. Sequaris, E. Koglin, B. Malfoy, “Inter and outer complexes of platinum-coordination compounds with DNA probed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” FEBS Lett. 173, 95–99 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Smulevich, A. Feis, A. R. Mantini, M. P. Marzocchi, “Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra of anti-tumor anthracyclines and their complexes with DNA,” Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 26, 207–211 (1988).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

T. M. Cotton, S. G. Schultz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra from water-soluble porphyrins adsorbed on a silver electrode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6528–6532 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herne, A. M. Ahern, R. L. Garrell, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of peptides: preferential N-terminal adsorption on colloid silver,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 846–854 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman spectroscopy by pyridine adsorbed on silver and gold sol particles of size comparable to excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 75, 790–797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (2)

E. Koglin, J.-M. Sequaris, “Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 141, 405–409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, W. Pohle, H. Fabian, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles,” J. Mol. Struct. 244, 183–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Comparative studies of antitumor DNA intercalating agents, aclacinomycin and saintopin, by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1344–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (5)

J. Aubard, M. A. Schwaller, J. Pantigny, J. P. Marsault, G. Levi, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of ellipticine, 2-N-methylellipticinium and their complexes with DNA,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 373–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Yoo, N.-S. Lee, I. Hanazaki, “Fourier-transform surface-enhanced Raman scattering of flavins in silver colloid using Nd:YAG 1064-nm excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 239–241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Cotton, J-. H. Kim, G. D. Chumanov, “Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to biological systems,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 729–742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Nabiev, I. Chourpa, M. Manfait, “Applications of Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in medicine,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Nabiev, V. A. Savchenko, E. S. Efremov, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids and proteins adsorbed by silver hydrosols,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 14, 375–380 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

D. Curley, O. Siiman, “Conformation and orientation of the haptens, 2,4-dinitrophenyl ammoniac’s, on colloid silver from surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 4, 1021–1032 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. (1)

R. F. Paisley, M. D. Morris, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of small biological molecules,” Prog. Anal. Spectrosc. 11, 111–140 (1988).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

I. R. Nabiev, R. G. Efremov, G. D. Chumanov, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and its application to the study of biological molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 241–245 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Top. Curr. Chem. (1)

E. Koglin, J. M. Sequaris, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of biomolecules,” Top. Curr. Chem. 134, 1–20 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (2)

H. Fabian, P. Anzenbacher, “New developments in Raman spectroscopy of biological systems,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 125–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Dou, T. Takama, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ozaki, “A highly sensitive, compact Raman system without a spectrometer for quantitative analysis of biological samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 14, 199–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Kournberg, DNA Replication (Freeman, New York, 1980).

M. Singer, P. Berg, Genes and Genomes (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1991).

T. M. Cotton, “The applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering to biological systems,” in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 91.

I. R. Nabiev, K. V. Sokolov, M. Manfait, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and its biomedical applications,” in Biomolecular Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1993), part A, pp. 267–338.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindole dihydrochloride (DAPI).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of 10-4 M of DAPI in an aqueous solution (40 μl) (a) before and (b) after the addition of a silver colloid solution (360 μl).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SERS spectra of the mixture of the PCR (5-μl), DAPI (35-μl), and silver colloid (360-μl) solutions. (a) NC (10-4 M of DAPI and negative PCR solution), (b) PC (10-4 M of DAPI and positive PCR solution).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the SERS spectrum of the mixture of the PCR (5-μl), DAPI (35-μl), and silver colloid (360-μl) solutions on the concentration of ds-DNA. The concentration was (a) 0.1, (b) 0.3, (c) 0.5, (d) 0.75, (e) 1.0, and (f) 1.3 μl.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of the intensity of the band at 1610 cm-1 versus the concentration of ds-DNA amplified by PCR.

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