Abstract

The use of photographic emulsions as a photoresist medium for fabricating relief blazed zone plates is described. Lithographic methods with masks with 256 gray levels were used in the fabrication process. An example of a zone plate working in the reflection mode at 45° and having 82% diffraction efficiency is shown.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. A. Fitch, “Molded optics: mating precision and mass production,” Photon. Spectra 25, 83–87 (1991).
  2. D. F. Horne, Spectacle Lens Technology (Crane, Russak, New York, 1978), Chap. 7; C. N. Teyssier, “Molded plastic optics enter the mainstream,” Photon. Spectra30, 105–116 (1996).
  3. T. J. Suleski, D. O’Shea, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: I. Commercial slide imagers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517 (1995); D. O’Shea, W. S. Rock Ward, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7518–7526 (1995) and references therein.
  4. P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News 15, 39–40 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, H. Schutz, P. Ebets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, “Continuous relief diffractive optical elements for two dimensional array generation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2526–2533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Daschner, M. Larsson, S. H. Lee, “Fabrication of monolithic diffractive optical elements by the use of e-beam direct write on an analog resist and a single chemically assisted ion-beam etching step,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2534–2539 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D. J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–791 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary lenses for use at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Eng. 24, 791–795 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, “Interferometric methods for the photographic production of large gratings,” Opt. Acta 8, 73–80 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Altman, “Pure relief images on type 649-F plates,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1689–1690 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wave fronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. M. Smith, “Photographic relief images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 533–539 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. M. Smith, “Production of photographic relief images with arbitrary profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1492–1493 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. M. Butusov, A. I. Ioffe, “Investigation of parameters of holographic periodic multiple-imaging structures,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 519–521 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).
  18. A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).
  19. E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristic of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).
  20. S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).
  21. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. N. Ecevit, A. Alaçakir, R. Aydin, “Investigation of AGFA-8E56HD photographic emulsion and relief hologram structures by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6227–6230 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. H. Lehman, Analytic Geometry (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  24. S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 15.
  25. B. H. Carroll, G. C. Higgins, T. H. James, Introduction to Photographic Theory (Wiley, New York, 1980), Chaps. 6 and 7.
  26. Ref. 25, Sect. 12.4.3.
  27. V. Moreno, M. C. Hutley, “The manufacture of blazed oblique zone plates for use at 10.6 μm,” NPL Rep. MOM92 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington Middlesex, UK, 1989).

1996

1995

1994

Y. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D. J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

M. A. Fitch, “Molded optics: mating precision and mass production,” Photon. Spectra 25, 83–87 (1991).

1990

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

1989

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristic of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News 15, 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

1985

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary lenses for use at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Eng. 24, 791–795 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

1976

M. M. Butusov, A. I. Ioffe, “Investigation of parameters of holographic periodic multiple-imaging structures,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 519–521 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. M. Smith, “Production of photographic relief images with arbitrary profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1492–1493 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

1966

J. H. Altman, “Pure relief images on type 649-F plates,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1689–1690 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wave fronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1961

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, “Interferometric methods for the photographic production of large gratings,” Opt. Acta 8, 73–80 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alaçakir, A.

Altman, J. H.

Aydin, R.

Boiko, Y.

Brui, E. B.

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristic of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, “Interferometric methods for the photographic production of large gratings,” Opt. Acta 8, 73–80 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Butusov, M. M.

M. M. Butusov, A. I. Ioffe, “Investigation of parameters of holographic periodic multiple-imaging structures,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 519–521 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Calixto, S.

Carroll, B. H.

B. H. Carroll, G. C. Higgins, T. H. James, Introduction to Photographic Theory (Wiley, New York, 1980), Chaps. 6 and 7.

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wave fronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Clark, P. P.

P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News 15, 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Daschner, W.

Ebets, P.

Ecevit, F. N.

Ermolaev, M. M.

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Fersti, M.

M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. A.

M. A. Fitch, “Molded optics: mating precision and mass production,” Photon. Spectra 25, 83–87 (1991).

Gale, M. T.

Galpern, A. D.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Gil, S. V.

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

Herzig, H. P.

Higgins, G. C.

B. H. Carroll, G. C. Higgins, T. H. James, Introduction to Photographic Theory (Wiley, New York, 1980), Chaps. 6 and 7.

Hirsch, P. M.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Horne, D. F.

D. F. Horne, Spectacle Lens Technology (Crane, Russak, New York, 1978), Chap. 7; C. N. Teyssier, “Molded plastic optics enter the mainstream,” Photon. Spectra30, 105–116 (1996).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Moreno, M. C. Hutley, “The manufacture of blazed oblique zone plates for use at 10.6 μm,” NPL Rep. MOM92 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington Middlesex, UK, 1989).

Ioffe, A. I.

M. M. Butusov, A. I. Ioffe, “Investigation of parameters of holographic periodic multiple-imaging structures,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 519–521 (1976).
[CrossRef]

James, T. H.

B. H. Carroll, G. C. Higgins, T. H. James, Introduction to Photographic Theory (Wiley, New York, 1980), Chaps. 6 and 7.

Jordan, J. A.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kalanina, I. V.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

Kalinina, I. V.

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Koreshev, S. N.

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristic of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

Kuhlow, B.

M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, M.

Lee, S. H.

Lehman, C. H.

C. H. Lehman, Analytic Geometry (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Lesem, L. B.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Londono, C.

P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News 15, 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D. J.

Meyer, S. L.

S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 15.

Moreno, V.

V. Moreno, M. C. Hutley, “The manufacture of blazed oblique zone plates for use at 10.6 μm,” NPL Rep. MOM92 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington Middlesex, UK, 1989).

O’Shea, D.

Palmer, D. A.

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, “Interferometric methods for the photographic production of large gratings,” Opt. Acta 8, 73–80 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pawlowski, E.

M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prongue, D.

Rossi, M.

Schutz, H.

Selyavko, L. V.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Smaev, V. P.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Smith, H. M.

Solovjev, V. S.

Stevens, R. F.

M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T. J.

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary lenses for use at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Eng. 24, 791–795 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary lenses for use at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Eng. 24, 791–795 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. J.

M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IBM J. Res. Dev.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

M. C. Hutley, R. F. Stevens, S. J. Wilson, “The manufacture of blazed zone plates using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 265–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Soc. Opt. Am.

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wave fronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, “Interferometric methods for the photographic production of large gratings,” Opt. Acta 8, 73–80 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary lenses for use at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Eng. 24, 791–795 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Fersti, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. News

P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News 15, 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR)

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalanina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristic of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

Photon. Spectra

M. A. Fitch, “Molded optics: mating precision and mass production,” Photon. Spectra 25, 83–87 (1991).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase relief holograms on silver halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

M. M. Butusov, A. I. Ioffe, “Investigation of parameters of holographic periodic multiple-imaging structures,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 519–521 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. F. Horne, Spectacle Lens Technology (Crane, Russak, New York, 1978), Chap. 7; C. N. Teyssier, “Molded plastic optics enter the mainstream,” Photon. Spectra30, 105–116 (1996).

C. H. Lehman, Analytic Geometry (Wiley, New York, 1978).

S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 15.

B. H. Carroll, G. C. Higgins, T. H. James, Introduction to Photographic Theory (Wiley, New York, 1980), Chaps. 6 and 7.

Ref. 25, Sect. 12.4.3.

V. Moreno, M. C. Hutley, “The manufacture of blazed oblique zone plates for use at 10.6 μm,” NPL Rep. MOM92 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington Middlesex, UK, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profile of an off-axis zone plate composed of several zones.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of a three-dimensional plot of an off-axis zone plate with focal distance f. Two sets of coordinate axes are shown, x-y-z and X-Y-Z.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of the major and minor axis for a reflection zone plate with a 50-cm focal distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Magnified section of the pattern that composes the mask of the zone plate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance of the step tablet as a function of the assigned gray level.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical system used to fabricate the relief element.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profiles of several zone plates taken with a surface analyzer: (a) when the photoreduction lens is sharply focused over the recording emulsion, (b) with a slight defocus of the photoreduction lens, (c) with slight defocus and mask presenting exponential correction, first level, (d) with slight defocus and second level correction, (e) with slight defocus and third level correction (overmodulated).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Behavior of corrected gray level N′ as a function of depth modulation. (b) Behavior of the corrected gray levels N′ as a function of the gray levels N; h is the adjustment parameter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Image given by an interference microscope when the central zone of a zone plate was investigated. (b) Image showing mainly the periphery of a zone plate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical system used to photograph the light spot at focal distance.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Light spot formed at focal distance. (b) Overexposure of light spot.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Zone plate relief depth (calculated and experimental) as a function of the distance along the Y axis for the central zone of the zone plate. Also shown is the corrected mask gray level (N′) as a function of the distance along the Y axis of the mask for the central zone.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Zone Plate Design Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical and Experimental Radii of the Airy Pattern Given by a Fabricated Zone Plate

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y 2 + z 2 = - f + n λ 2 x - n λ ,
Z X ,   Y = 2 2 f + n λ - Y - 4 f + n λ 2 f + n λ - 2 Y - 2 X 2 1 / 2 .
Y + 2 n λ 2 / 2 + X 2 = 2 f + n λ n λ .
y 2 + z 2 = - 2 fx + fn λ .
Z X ,   Y = 2 2 f - Y - 4 f 2 f - 2 Y - 2 X 2 1 / 2 .
Y 2 / 2 + X 2 = 2 fn λ .
N = intg 255 / 449   Z X ,   Y ,
N = intg a exp bZ X ,   Y - 1 ,
a = h / 255 / h - 2 ,     b = 2 / 449 ln 255 / h - 1 .

Metrics