Abstract

We have systematically investigated ultrathin Cr/Sc multilayers (nanolayers), using tunable soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation. The multilayers were optimized for use either in normal incidence or at 45° at photon energies around the 2p-absorption edges of Sc (399 eV) and Cr (574 eV), respectively. They were sputter deposited on Si wafers or on thin Si3N4-membrane support structures for use in reflection and in transmission, respectively, as polarizing and phase-retarding elements in a polarimeter. The performance theoretically expected with respect to reflection/transmission and energy resolution has been confirmed experimentally: A value of 7% for the normal-incidence peak reflectance at 395 eV was measured as well as a pronounced minimum in transmission for certain incidence angles and energies below the respective absorption edges, indicating significant phase-shifting effects.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
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  12. N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  28. U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schäfers, R. Wolf, “Schottky type photodiodes as detectors in the VUV and soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4336–4341 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. For further information on the multilayer survey, see http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .
  31. L. Nevot, P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surfaces par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l’etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Kortright, “Status and limitations of multilayer x-ray interference structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 156, 271–275 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Souflie, E. M. Gullickson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997).
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1997 (1)

1996 (3)

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, “Status and limitations of multilayer x-ray interference structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 156, 271–275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer by layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. L. Duan, J. O. Artman, “Study of the growth characteristics of sputtered Cr thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4913–4915 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis diffractometer for soft-x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schäfers, R. Wolf, “Schottky type photodiodes as detectors in the VUV and soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4336–4341 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

L. Nevot, P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surfaces par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l’etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Akhsakhalyan, A. D.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, S. S.

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Artman, J. O.

S. L. Duan, J. O. Artman, “Study of the growth characteristics of sputtered Cr thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4913–4915 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balakireva, L. L.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barth, J.

Becker, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belik, V. P.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berakdar, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijkerk, F.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bobashev, S. V.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Böni, P.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Cheung, K. C.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, D.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Croce, P.

L. Nevot, P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surfaces par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l’etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dapor, M.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

DiFonzo, S.

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duan, S. L.

S. L. Duan, J. O. Artman, “Study of the growth characteristics of sputtered Cr thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4913–4915 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eggenstein, F.

U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Engelns, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericksson, M.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Etlicher, B.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
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U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997).
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U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fraerman, A. A.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

Gaponov, S. V.

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Golub, L.

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Golubev, A. V.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Grioni, M.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grudsky, A. Y.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Gullickson, E. M.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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Heinzmann, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellwig, C.

H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hentges, R.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornstrup, A.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Horrisberger, M.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Howells, M.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33–130 (1995).
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Jacobsen, C.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jark, W.

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis diffractometer for soft-x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Jung, C.

H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalata, K.

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, H.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolachevsky, N. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, “Status and limitations of multilayer x-ray interference structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 156, 271–275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krisch, M.

Krumrey, M.

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schäfers, R. Wolf, “Schottky type photodiodes as detectors in the VUV and soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4336–4341 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “reflec—A program to calculate soft-x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Tech. Ber. BESSY TB201, 1–17 (1996), BESSY GmbH, Lentzeallee 100, D-14195 Berlin.

Louis, E.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, F.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mayama, K.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, F. G.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertins, H.-Ch.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Mitropolsky, M. M.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Müller, B. R.

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Namioka, T.

Nevot, L.

L. Nevot, P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surfaces par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l’etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, V.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, R.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Nystrom, G.

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peatman, W. B.

H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, H.

Plag, P.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Yu. Ya.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Polushkin, N. I.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puik, E. J.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ragozin, E. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roper, M.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rüdel, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salashchenko, N. N.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Schäfers, F.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schäfers, R. Wolf, “Schottky type photodiodes as detectors in the VUV and soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4336–4341 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “reflec—A program to calculate soft-x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Tech. Ber. BESSY TB201, 1–17 (1996), BESSY GmbH, Lentzeallee 100, D-14195 Berlin.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Schmolla, F.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Schnopper, H. W.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Senf, F.

U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serov, R. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E. A.

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shinkarev, S. I.

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Shmaenok, L. A.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simanovskii, D. M.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simanovsky, D. M.

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

Slemzin, V. A.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snell, G.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorokin, A. A.

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Souflie, R.

Soullie, G.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft-X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, J.

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis diffractometer for soft-x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tegeler, E.

Underwood, J.

S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

Underwood, J. H.

S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Brug, H.

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Dorssen, G. E.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viefhaus, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, A. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viola, A.

E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, G. S.

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.

Watanabe, M.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

Wiedenhöft, M.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, R.

Wood, J.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer by layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, K.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

Yanagihara, M.

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S. A.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zayzev, V. I.

S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Yu.

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).

N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. L. Duan, J. O. Artman, “Study of the growth characteristics of sputtered Cr thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4913–4915 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. (1)

L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mat. (1)

J. B. Kortright, “Status and limitations of multilayer x-ray interference structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 156, 271–275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. X-ray Sci. Technol. (1)

F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (3)

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis diffractometer for soft-x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. (1)

N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (2)

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Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

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Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

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Thin Solid Films (1)

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N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993).
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H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

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F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Survey of theoretical multilayer performance in the water window region. The maximum normal-incidence reflectance for ideal multilayers, assuming no roughness, is plotted. The d spacing is varied with the photon wavelength according to λ = 2d. In the calculation 200 periods and equal thicknesses were assumed for all multilayers. The best performance is obtained at and below the absorption edges of the respective spacer materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of imaginary versus real part of the normal-incidence reflection coefficients for a variety of materials at a photon energy of 397 eV (Sc 2p edge) according to Ref. 22.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup at BESSY. The triple-axis UHV reflectometer/diffractometer is coupled to the exit slit of the bending magnet beamline PM 4 of the SX700 type.25-27

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bragg scan (h ν–θ–2θ) of a Cr/Sc multilayer around the Cr 2p 3/2 and p 1/2 absorption edges. For each photon energy a θ–2θ scan around the Bragg peak was performed. The projection shows the peak reflectance data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity reflected from a Cr/Sc multilayer as a function of photon energy at an incidence angle of θ = 80°. Symbols with solid curve, experimental data. The fit (dotted curve) yields a roughness parameter of σ = 0.3 nm. The intensity is normalized with respect to the incident intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity reflected from a Cr/Sc multilayer as a function of the photon energy in the vicinity of the Cr 2p absorption edge for varies angles of incidence θ. Note that the resonant reflection peaks stay fixed at the 2p 3/2 and p 1/2 edges, while the Bragg peak is moving through the resonance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak reflectance data for various Cr/Sc multilayers as a function of the photon energy for the Sc and the Cr 2p edges, extracted from Bragg scans such as shown in Fig. 4. The inset shows the reflectance in the total working range.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resolving power for selected Cr/Sc multilayers in the region of the Cr and Sc 2p edges. Data were calculated from the FWHM peak width of the θ–2θ curves.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak reflectance data as a function of the period (and the corresponding angle of incidence) for all investigated Cr/Sc multilayers for the energy of the Sc 2p (top) and of the Cr 2p edge (bottom). Solid symbols, results from synchrotron radiation measurements with linear polarized light; open symbols, results with unpolarized light from an x-ray tube at 395 and 574 eV.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Peak reflectance in normal incidence (top) and for an incidence angle of 45° (bottom) of Fig. 7 as a function of the period for all investigated Cr/Sc multilayers. Note the record value of 7% at 395 eV obtained with a period of 1.57 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Roughness values extracted from the reflectance data of Fig. 7 for all Cr/Sc multilayers. The fit to the experimental data was done in the region of the Cr 2p edge. The roughness data apply to both materials. Substrate roughness is 0.4 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normal-incidence transmission of a Si3N4 film without (top) and with (bottom) a Cr/Sc multilayer in the soft-x-ray range.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of the transmission of the Cr/Sc-multilayer/membrane structure on the angle of incidence at various energies close to the 2p edge of Sc (left panel). The transmission exhibits a pronounced Bragg minimum within the absorption edge corresponding to the Bragg maximum in reflection geometry. The energy-dependent transmission curve (right panel) is taken from Fig. 12. Note the experimentally resolved spin-orbit splitting of the edge into 2p 3/2 and 2p 1/2.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of the transmission of the Cr/Sc-multilayer/membrane structure on the angle of incidence at various energies close to the 2p edge of Cr (left panel). The transmission exhibits a pronounced Bragg minimum within the absorption edge corresponding to the Bragg maximum in reflection geometry. The energy-dependent transmission curve (right panel) is taken from Fig. 12. Note the experimentally detected spin-orbit splitting of the edge into 2p 3/2 and 2p 1/2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relevant Parameters of all Investigated Cr/Sc Multilayers

Equations (11)

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R θ = k 0 2 sin   π γ / π q 2 | ε 1 - ε 2 | 2 exp - q 2 σ 2 × 0 L exp i kz + Φ z d z 2 ,
k = 2 k 0 2 / q sin 2   θ B - sin 2   θ , Φ z = q / d 0 Z   ξ z d z ,
Re ε 1 γ + ε 2 1 - γ - sin 2   θ B = q 2 / 4 k 0 2 .
L < l = q 4 k 0 2 Im ε 1 γ + ε 2 1 - γ - 1 .
R I = - +   R θ d θ = k 0 sin   π γ 2 / 2 π 2 q   sin   2 θ B | ε 1 - ε 2 | 2 exp - q 2 σ 2 L .
0 L   ξ x d x = 2 Ldk 0 2 sin   2 θ B / R I q 2 P i / δ | δ = 0 ,
0 L   ξ x 2 d x = 4 Ld 2 k 0 4 sin 2   2 θ B / R I q 4 2 P r / δ 2 | δ = 0 ,
P = - +   R θ exp i θ δ d θ .
R I λ 1 / R I λ 2 = | ε 1 λ 1 - ε 2 λ 1 / ε 1 λ 2 - ε 2 λ 2 | 2 sin   2 θ B λ 1 / sin   2 θ B λ 2 .
χ A = r e λ 2 N A ρ A f A C A / A + f B 1 - C A / B
R = R o R d = R o sin   π a / d π a / d 2 ,

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