Abstract

Wave aberrations of refractive photoresist microlenses and silicon microlenses were measured with a lateral shearing interferometer. Because of the silicon elements, a near-infrared working wavelength (λ = 1.32 μm) was used. The wave front was evaluated by a phase step technique with four steps. Integration of the phase distributions was performed with a computationally efficient Fourier transformation algorithm. The influence of the detector vidicon nonlinearity on the measured wave front was calculated. The defocusing behavior of the interferometer was investigated by fitting the measured wave fronts with the help of Zernike circle polynomials. It is shown that the reproducibility can be kept below λ/100 rms. Examples for the measured wave fronts of plano–convex silicon microlenses are discussed in detail.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprague, G. A. N. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. R. Freischlad, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Modal estimation of a wave front from difference measurements using the discrete Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1852–1861 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.
  8. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 464–466.

1997 (1)

L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 464–466.

Connell, G. A. N.

Daly, D.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davies, N.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Efferenn, D.

L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, L.

L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Falkenstörfer, O.

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Freischlad, K. R.

Harbers, G.

G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kunst, P. J.

G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibbrandt, G. W. R.

G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murty, M. V. R. K.

M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.

Popovic, Z. D.

Schwider, J.

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sickinger, H.

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R. A.

Stevens, R. F.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 464–466.

Appl. Opt. (2)

G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprague, G. A. N. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 464–466.

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