Abstract

Night-vision goggle objectives are often composed of six or more conventional lens elements with spherical surfaces and homogeneous refractive indices. Special elements such as aspheres, diffractive optics, and gradient-index materials can be used to reduce the total number of lenses required to meet military design specifications. A study was performed to examine the use of various combinations of these special surfaces to determine the minimum number of elements that can be used to construct the objective system. We present and compare the best resulting designs.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. USA Communications–Electronics Command , “Lens Assembly, Objective for Aviator’s Night Vision Imaging System,” Military Specification MIL-L-49426(CR) (USA Communications–Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J., 1989).
  2. J. M. Hall , U.S. Army NVESD, 10221 Burbeck Road, Suite 430, Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060-5806 (personal communication, 1996).
  3. R. N. Pfisterer, “Design of an objective for night vision applications using axial-GRIN materials,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 270–278 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Code V v. 8.10A, Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.
  5. Optical Glass, Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, Pa.
  6. A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964).

Cox, A.

A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964).

Hall, J. M.

J. M. Hall , U.S. Army NVESD, 10221 Burbeck Road, Suite 430, Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060-5806 (personal communication, 1996).

Pfisterer, R. N.

R. N. Pfisterer, “Design of an objective for night vision applications using axial-GRIN materials,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 270–278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

USA Communications–Electronics Command , “Lens Assembly, Objective for Aviator’s Night Vision Imaging System,” Military Specification MIL-L-49426(CR) (USA Communications–Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J., 1989).

J. M. Hall , U.S. Army NVESD, 10221 Burbeck Road, Suite 430, Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060-5806 (personal communication, 1996).

R. N. Pfisterer, “Design of an objective for night vision applications using axial-GRIN materials,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 270–278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Code V v. 8.10A, Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.

Optical Glass, Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, Pa.

A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Military ANVIS objective MTF specifications at 0°, 14°, and 20° half-field angles. For each field angle, the tangential (T) and radial (R) specifications are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conventional eight-element design (a) lens drawing and (b) MTF curves. This analysis/graphic is provided for comparative purposes by the U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and was generated by NVESD from the proprietary prescription owned by ITT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Design with aspheric first element (a) lens drawing and (b) MTF curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Design with shallow radial-GRIN first element (a) lens drawing and (b) MTF curves.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Design Wavelengths and Weightings

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Table 2 Lens Listing for Design with Aspheric First Element

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Table 3 Lens Listing for Design with Shallow Radial-GRIN First Element

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Table 4 Summary of Designs

Equations (5)

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Z=cr21+1-c2r21/2+Ar4+Br6+Cr8+Dr10,
φ=2πλon Cnr2n,
Nr=N00+N10r2+N20r4+N30r6+ ,
VG=Ni0,λ2Ni0,λ3-Ni0,λ1  i0,
PG=Ni0,λ2-Ni0,λ1Ni0,λ3-Ni0,λ1  i0,

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