Abstract

The current scanning near-field optical microscopy has been developed with optical-fiber probes obtained by use of either laser-heated pulling or chemical etching. For high-resolution near-field imaging, the detected signal is rapidly attenuated as the aperture size of the probe decreases. It is thus important to fabricate probes optimized for both spot size and optical transmission. We present a two-step fabrication that allowed us to achieve an improved performance of the optical-fiber probes. Initially, a CO2 laser-heated pulling was used to produce a parabolic transitional taper ending with a top thin filament. Then, a rapid chemical etching with 50% buffered hydrofluoric acid was used to remove the thin filament and to result in a final conical tip on the top of the parabolic transitional taper. Systematically, we obtained optical-fiber nanoprobes with the apex size as small as 10 nm and the final cone angle varying from 15° to 80°. It was found that the optical transmission efficiency increases rapidly as the taper angle increases from 15° to 50°, but a further increase in the taper angle gives rise to important broadening of the spot size. Finally, the fabricated nanoprobes were used in photon-scanning tunneling microscopy, which allowed observation of etched double lines and grating structures with periods as small as 200 nm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Selected papers of the Second International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 57, 113–322 (1995).
  3. Selected papers of the Third International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–304 (1996).
  4. D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Betzig, J. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1215–1228 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995);“Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Optical Fibers, 2 Avenue, Deeside Industrial Park, Deeside Clwyd CH5 2NX, UK.
  18. Sutter Instruments Company, 40 Levroni Court, Novato, Calif. 94949.
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    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, Y. Chen, “Effect of the characteristics of the tip fiber on the detection of the near-field and on image formation with the PSTM,” in Vision Systems: New Image Processing Techniques, P. Refregier, ed., Proc. SPIE2785, 313–321 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. J. Greffet, R. Carminatti, “Theory of imaging in near-field microscopy,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale: Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, NATO ASI Series E,M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 1–26.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Carminati, Laboratoire EM2C, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry, France (personal communication, 1996).
  26. R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, “Direct reconstruction of surfaces from near-field intensity under spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 21, 501–503 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Scanning-tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Chen, R. Kupka, “Analysis of the near-field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selected papers of the Third International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–304 (1996).

R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, “Direct reconstruction of surfaces from near-field intensity under spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 21, 501–503 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (8)

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1215–1228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995);“Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selected papers of the Second International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 57, 113–322 (1995).

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, R. Kupka, “Analysis of the near-field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Scanning-tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourilot, E.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambril, E.

M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

Carminatti, R.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminatti, “Theory of imaging in near-field microscopy,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale: Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, NATO ASI Series E,M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 1–26.
[CrossRef]

Chappert, C.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, R. Kupka, “Analysis of the near-field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, Y. Chen, “Effect of the characteristics of the tip fiber on the detection of the near-field and on image formation with the PSTM,” in Vision Systems: New Image Processing Techniques, P. Refregier, ed., Proc. SPIE2785, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Fornel, F.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, Y. Chen, “Effect of the characteristics of the tip fiber on the detection of the near-field and on image formation with the PSTM,” in Vision Systems: New Image Processing Techniques, P. Refregier, ed., Proc. SPIE2785, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, M. N.

M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dutoit, B.

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Essaidi, N.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrel, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Frost, A. E.

M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M.

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

R. Carminati, J. J. Greffet, “Direct reconstruction of surfaces from near-field intensity under spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 21, 501–503 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminatti, “Theory of imaging in near-field microscopy,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale: Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, NATO ASI Series E,M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 1–26.
[CrossRef]

Haratounian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

Hoffman, P.

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Issacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kadoche, L.

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kottler, V.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kupka, R.

Y. Chen, R. Kupka, “Analysis of the near-field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lagadec, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lesniewska, E.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Merzeau, L.

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

Moyer, P. J.

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Ohsawa, H.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pangaribuan, T.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, Y. Chen, “Effect of the characteristics of the tip fiber on the detection of the near-field and on image formation with the PSTM,” in Vision Systems: New Image Processing Techniques, P. Refregier, ed., Proc. SPIE2785, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seaver, M.

M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slathé, R.

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tate, T.

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J.

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valaskovic, G. A.

Van Labeke, D.

Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakobson, B. I.

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stechoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscope and collection mode scanning near-field microscope using gold coated optical fiber probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1498–1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer, M. A. Paesler, “Kinetic limits of sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7984–7986 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourilot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barriers: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991);E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (8)

Y. Chen, M. Garcia-Parajo, Y. Lagadec, L. Merzeau, L. Kadoche, N. Essaidi, H. Launois, “Design and implementation of a combined scanning tunneling and near-field optical microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 253–258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Seaver, M. N. Duncan, A. E. Frost, “Near-field optical microscopy at the liquid/air interface,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 219–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Issacson, A. Haratounian, A. Murray, “Development of a 500A resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Selected papers of the Second International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 57, 113–322 (1995).

Selected papers of the Third International Conference on Near-Field Optics, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–304 (1996).

Y. Chen, R. Kupka, “Analysis of the near-field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R. Slathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimization,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Optical Fibers, 2 Avenue, Deeside Industrial Park, Deeside Clwyd CH5 2NX, UK.

Sutter Instruments Company, 40 Levroni Court, Novato, Calif. 94949.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, Y. Chen, “Effect of the characteristics of the tip fiber on the detection of the near-field and on image formation with the PSTM,” in Vision Systems: New Image Processing Techniques, P. Refregier, ed., Proc. SPIE2785, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminatti, “Theory of imaging in near-field microscopy,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale: Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, NATO ASI Series E,M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 1–26.
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, Laboratoire EM2C, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry, France (personal communication, 1996).

D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands, 1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photomicrographs of (a), (c) 100× and (b), (d) 1000× magnifications of a pulling tapered optical fiber (a) and (b) before and (c) and (d) after 90 s of chemical etching in buffered HF acid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of a pulling–etching tapered nanoprobe with a 10-nm apex size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission electron micrograph of a pulling–etching tapered optical fiber tip after a 6-nm Au evaporation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the relative taper length of optical-fiber probes on HF acid etching time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the cone angle of optical-fiber probes as a function of etching time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning electron micrographs of optical-fiber nanoprobes with (a) 70 s, (b) 300 s, and (c) and (d) 160 s chemical etching time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CCD images over a 15 × 15 μm2 area of the light spot passed through optical-fiber probes: obtained with three parabolic tapers after (a) 70 s, (b) 160 s, and (c) 300 s of etching time and (d) one conical taper without chemical treatment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical tunneling intensity as a function of the probe distance to the sample.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

PSTM image of a double-line structure etched into a quartz substrate with 40-nm etching depth and 150-nm line spacing.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

PSTM image of an etched quartz grating with 40-nm etching depth and 1-μm period.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

PSTM image of an etched quartz grating with 40-nm etching depth and 200-nm period.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Transmission Efficiencies of Various Optical-Fiber Probes

Equations (2)

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SiO2 + 6HF  H2SiF6 + 2H2O,GeO2 + 6HF  H2GeF6 + 2H2O.
lm=λ2π[n sin i+mλ/a2-1]1/2,

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