Abstract

In two previous papers we presented experimental results of measurements with a scanning plasmon optical microscope constructed in the Kretschmann configuration. The angular distribution of the conical radiation from the scanning tip was measured, and the multiple-scattering images of simple surface irregularities were detected. We make a simple model of the multiple-scattering images and compare it with our data, deriving excellent results.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Ritchie, “Plasmon losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth Surfaces and Rough Surfaces (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Vol. 111.
  3. E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1963).
  4. H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on rough surfaces,” Nuovo Cimento B 39, 817–822 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Simon, J. K. Guha, “Directional surface plasmon scattering from silver films,” Opt. Commun. 18, 391–394 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Braundmeier, H. E. Tomaschke, “Observation of the simultaneous emission of roughness-coupled and optical-coupled surface plasmon radiation from silver,” Opt. Commun. 14, 99–103 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. H. Weber, C. F. Eagaen, “Energy transfer from an excited dye molecule to the surface plasmons of an adjacent metal,” Opt. Lett. 4, 236–238 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Byahut, T. E. Furtak, “A device for performing surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted Raman scattering from adsorbates on single-crystal silver surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 27–32 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1–3 (1995).
  11. Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-K. Kim, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Conical electromagnetic radiation in the Kretschmann attenuated total reflections configuration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 841–846 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

Y.-K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1–3 (1995).

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Byahut, T. E. Furtak, “A device for performing surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted Raman scattering from adsorbates on single-crystal silver surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 27–32 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on rough surfaces,” Nuovo Cimento B 39, 817–822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. J. Simon, J. K. Guha, “Directional surface plasmon scattering from silver films,” Opt. Commun. 18, 391–394 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. J. Braundmeier, H. E. Tomaschke, “Observation of the simultaneous emission of roughness-coupled and optical-coupled surface plasmon radiation from silver,” Opt. Commun. 14, 99–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1963).

1957 (1)

H. Ritchie, “Plasmon losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Auvil, P. R.

Y.-K. Kim, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Conical electromagnetic radiation in the Kretschmann attenuated total reflections configuration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 841–846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Braundmeier, A. J.

A. J. Braundmeier, H. E. Tomaschke, “Observation of the simultaneous emission of roughness-coupled and optical-coupled surface plasmon radiation from silver,” Opt. Commun. 14, 99–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Byahut, S.

S. Byahut, T. E. Furtak, “A device for performing surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted Raman scattering from adsorbates on single-crystal silver surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 27–32 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eagaen, C. F.

Furtak, T. E.

S. Byahut, T. E. Furtak, “A device for performing surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted Raman scattering from adsorbates on single-crystal silver surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 27–32 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guha, J. K.

H. J. Simon, J. K. Guha, “Directional surface plasmon scattering from silver films,” Opt. Commun. 18, 391–394 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hatta, A.

W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, J. A.

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

Kim, Y.-K.

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1963).

Lundquist, P. M.

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mikrut, J. M.

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. J.

Otto, A.

W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on rough surfaces,” Nuovo Cimento B 39, 817–822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1963).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth Surfaces and Rough Surfaces (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Vol. 111.

Ritchie, H.

H. Ritchie, “Plasmon losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

H. J. Simon, J. K. Guha, “Directional surface plasmon scattering from silver films,” Opt. Commun. 18, 391–394 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tomaschke, H. E.

A. J. Braundmeier, H. E. Tomaschke, “Observation of the simultaneous emission of roughness-coupled and optical-coupled surface plasmon radiation from silver,” Opt. Commun. 14, 99–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

Wittke, W.

W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

W. Wittke, A. Hatta, A. Otto, “Efficient use of the surface plasmon polariton resonances in light scattering from adsorbates,” Appl. Phys. A 48, 289–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. R. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento B (1)

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on rough surfaces,” Nuovo Cimento B 39, 817–822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. J. Simon, J. K. Guha, “Directional surface plasmon scattering from silver films,” Opt. Commun. 18, 391–394 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Braundmeier, H. E. Tomaschke, “Observation of the simultaneous emission of roughness-coupled and optical-coupled surface plasmon radiation from silver,” Opt. Commun. 14, 99–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. Ritchie, “Plasmon losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Byahut, T. E. Furtak, “A device for performing surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted Raman scattering from adsorbates on single-crystal silver surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 27–32 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A (1)

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1963).

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth Surfaces and Rough Surfaces (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Vol. 111.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the SPOM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular distribution of the intensity of the conical radiation when the scanning tip was kept within a tunneling region above the silver surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SPOM image of a surface irregularity for a 21 μm × 21 μm region. (b) Model calculation for a similar region with a surface irregularity of radius one wavelength (phase reversed for clarity).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SPOM image of a surface irregularity for a 10 μm × 10 μm region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SPOM image of a pointlike surface irregularity for a 50 μm × 50 μm region. (b) Model calculation for a similar region showing opposite interference phases in the forward and backward directions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SPOM image of a surface irregularity for a 20 μm × 20 μm region. (b) Model calculation for a similar region with a surface irregularity of radius one-half wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SPOM image of a large 150 μm × 150 μm region showing many surface irregularities. (b) Model calculation for a similar region with one pointlike irregularity.

Equations (2)

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A α = g 1   *   cos α + g 2 ,
d 2 - d 1 = d   *   cos θ + ϕ .

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