Abstract

Freestanding, multimode optical channel waveguides formed by micromachining silicon are demonstrated. Fabrication utilizes standard microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Losses in the 0.57–0.80-dB/cm range are measured for channel waveguides with an air–silicon–air structure, whereas losses in the 1.12–1.52-dB/cm range are measured for channel waveguides with a SiO2–silicon–SiO2 structure. Freestanding channel waveguides, along with optical fibers and other MEMS structures, can readily be mounted on a silicon MEMS platform to provide optimal alignment for maximizing optical coupling, and they are thus expected to be useful in devices that involve light and MEMS structures.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, “Single-crystal silicon: a new material for 1.3 and 1.6 μm integrated-optical components,” Electron. Lett. 21, 953–954 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. beamprop, Rsoft, Inc., 13 Lancaster Avenue, N.Y. 10548 (914-734-2665).
  11. M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, “Single-crystal silicon: a new material for 1.3 and 1.6 μm integrated-optical components,” Electron. Lett. 21, 953–954 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, P. W. L.

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chevallier, J.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Brabander, G. N.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eng, T. T. H.

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iodice, M.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenkinson, H. A.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kan, S. C.

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. Y.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, J. P.

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, “Single-crystal silicon: a new material for 1.3 and 1.6 μm integrated-optical components,” Electron. Lett. 21, 953–954 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naghski, D. H.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pister, K. S. J.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtchen, J.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schuppert, B.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, “Single-crystal silicon: a new material for 1.3 and 1.6 μm integrated-optical components,” Electron. Lett. 21, 953–954 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spirito, P.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Splett, A.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, V.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theys, B.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. G.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zinke, T.

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, “Single-crystal silicon: a new material for 1.3 and 1.6 μm integrated-optical components,” Electron. Lett. 21, 953–954 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi–Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si–SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. T. H. Eng, J. Y. L. Ho, P. W. L. Chan, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Large core (∼60 μm) SOI multimode waveguides for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1196–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, J. M. Zavada, H. A. Jenkinson, R. G. Wilson, B. Theys, J. Chevallier, “Channel optical waveguides formed by deuterium passivation in GaAs and InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3205–3213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, “Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Schuppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2311–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A

T. T. H. Eng, S. C. Kan, G. K. L. Wong, “Surface-micromachined epitaxial silicon cantilevers as movable optical waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Sensors Actuators A 49, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

beamprop, Rsoft, Inc., 13 Lancaster Avenue, N.Y. 10548 (914-734-2665).

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