Abstract

A common experimental problem with rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is undesired spectral interference that is due to stray light from the primary laser beams. Also, for the most developed approach, dual-broadband rotational CARS, practical measurements often suffer from stray light interference from the narrow-band laser, inasmuch as the CARS signal is produced inherently in the spectral vicinity of the narrow-band laser beam. An optical filter does not provide a sufficiently sharp transmission profile, thus leading to signal loss and spectral distortion of the rotational CARS signal. An atomic filter consisting of a sodium-seeded flame is presented here as a solution to the problem, and its usefulness was demonstrated in dual-broadband rotational CARS experiments.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  2. D. A. Greenhalgh, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy,” in Advances of Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clarke, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.
  3. W. Stricker, W. Meier, “The use of CARS for temperature measurements in practical flames,” in Trends in Applied Spectroscopy, Council of Scientific Research Integration, ed. (Research Trends, Trivandrum, India, 1993), pp. 231–259.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.
  11. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, have prepared the paper, “Test of a catalytic combustor performance by temperature and oxygen concentration measurements using rotational CARS,” for possible presentation at the 44th American Society of Mechanical Engineers Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress in 1999.
  12. A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: crossed-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. P. Goss, J. W. Flemming, A. B. Harvey, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of simple gases,” Opt. Lett. 5, 345–347 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Laser atomic spectroscopy in flames, gases and beams,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 385–402 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. Roland, W. A. Steele, “Intensities in pure rotational CARS of air,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5919–5923 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1996 (4)

1993 (2)

M. J. Pelletier, “Potassium vapor near-IR laser line rejection filter for Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 69–74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Laser atomic spectroscopy in flames, gases and beams,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 385–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (4)

1978 (2)

A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: crossed-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989); Erratum, Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, have prepared the paper, “Test of a catalytic combustor performance by temperature and oxygen concentration measurements using rotational CARS,” for possible presentation at the 44th American Society of Mechanical Engineers Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress in 1999.

Alkemade, C. Th. J.

C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Laser atomic spectroscopy in flames, gases and beams,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 385–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. J.

Andresen, P.

Beattie, I. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989); Erratum, Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, have prepared the paper, “Test of a catalytic combustor performance by temperature and oxygen concentration measurements using rotational CARS,” for possible presentation at the 44th American Society of Mechanical Engineers Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress in 1999.

Bonamy, J.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, have prepared the paper, “Test of a catalytic combustor performance by temperature and oxygen concentration measurements using rotational CARS,” for possible presentation at the 44th American Society of Mechanical Engineers Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress in 1999.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

Brown, K. W.

K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burgdorf, K.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

Chang, R. K.

Denbratt, I.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Flemming, J. W.

Gilson, T. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gölz, P.

Goss, L. P.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy,” in Advances of Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clarke, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.

Hall, R. J.

Harvey, A. B.

Hoffman, D.

Indralingam, R.

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989); Erratum, Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

Lasseson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Lundholm, G.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Marforio, K.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Mauss, F.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

Meier, W.

W. Stricker, W. Meier, “The use of CARS for temperature measurements in practical flames,” in Trends in Applied Spectroscopy, Council of Scientific Research Integration, ed. (Research Trends, Trivandrum, India, 1993), pp. 231–259.

Münch, K.-U.

Murphy, D. V.

Nibler, J. W.

K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

Pelletier, M. J.

Petrucci, G. A.

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prior, Y.

Rich, N. H.

K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roland, C. M.

C. M. Roland, W. A. Steele, “Intensities in pure rotational CARS of air,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5919–5923 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

Shirley, J. A.

Simeonsson, J. B.

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. W.

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, W. A.

C. M. Roland, W. A. Steele, “Intensities in pure rotational CARS of air,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5919–5923 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stricker, W.

W. Stricker, W. Meier, “The use of CARS for temperature measurements in practical flames,” in Trends in Applied Spectroscopy, Council of Scientific Research Integration, ed. (Research Trends, Trivandrum, India, 1993), pp. 231–259.

Winefordner, J. D.

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

R. Indralingam, J. B. Simeonsson, G. A. Petrucci, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Raman spectrometry with metal vapor filters,” Anal. Chem. 64, 964–967 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: crossed-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Roland, W. A. Steele, “Intensities in pure rotational CARS of air,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5919–5923 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

K. W. Brown, N. H. Rich, J. W. Nibler, “High resolution rotational CARS spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 151, 482–492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Laser atomic spectroscopy in flames, gases and beams,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 385–402 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Low frequency coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of air,” Nature (London) 276, 378–379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (6)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lasseson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, I. Denbratt, “Knock in spark-ignition engines: end-gas temperature measurements using rotational CARS and detailed kinetic calculations of the autoignition process,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 971669.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, have prepared the paper, “Test of a catalytic combustor performance by temperature and oxygen concentration measurements using rotational CARS,” for possible presentation at the 44th American Society of Mechanical Engineers Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress in 1999.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy,” in Advances of Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clarke, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.

W. Stricker, W. Meier, “The use of CARS for temperature measurements in practical flames,” in Trends in Applied Spectroscopy, Council of Scientific Research Integration, ed. (Research Trends, Trivandrum, India, 1993), pp. 231–259.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic principle of dual-broadband rotational CARS illustrated in an energy-level diagram (top) and a spectral diagram (bottom). Beams 1 and 2 are broadband dye laser beams, whereas 3 is a narrow-band laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic experimental setup: the absorption filter, consisting of a sodium-seeded acetylene–air premixed flame, is located between the two cylindrical lenses CL1 and CL2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Rotational CARS spectrum recorded in oxygen without any seeding into the flame. (b) Spectrum recorded with the NaCl concentration 0.22 g dl-1, resulting in attenuation by a factor of >2 orders of magnitude. (c) Scan of the narrow-band dye laser with 0.22-g NaCl dl-1 in the seeding solution. Absorption by the sodium D lines is apparent.

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