Abstract

We present an algorithm for fast and reliable extraction of page-formatted binary digital data. The advantages of the algorithm include a low raw bit-error rate, fast extraction speed, the use of a simple and density-efficient coding scheme, and large tolerance to a change of the signal-to-noise ratio. We used this algorithm to analyze shot-noise-limited binary data that had large interpage and intrapage intensity variations and obtained an improvement in the bit-error rate of 3–4 orders of magnitude compared with that in a single-threshold-detection scheme. Implications of our results for the development of high-speed, high-density holographic memories are discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

M. A. Neifeld, K. M. Chugg, B. M. King, “Parallel data detection in page oriented optical memory,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1481–1483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

1994

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashley, J.

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernal, M. P.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Burr, G. W.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Chugg, K. M.

Çokgör, I.

Coufal, H.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Dvornikov, A. S.

Essener, S. C.

Grygier, R. K.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Huestis, D.

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Kachru, R.

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

King, B. M.

Macfarlane, R. M.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Marcus, B.

McCormick, F. B.

Neifeld, M. A.

Nguyen, A.-D.

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J.

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

Shelby, R. M.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Shen, X. A.

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Wang, M. M.

Wittmann, G.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

MRS Bull.

M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, G. Wittmann, “Holographic-data-storage materials,” MRS Bull. 21, 51–55 (1996).

Opt. Lett.

Science

X. A. Shen, A.-D. Nguyen, J. Perry, D. Huestis, R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science 278, 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Two retrieved images from a time-domain holographic memory. (b) Distributions and BER corresponding to data bits from 99 pages retrieved from the memory. Open triangles and open circles represent 0’s and 1’s, respectively, and the solid curve represents the experimental BER. Arrows point to the respective vertical scales.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour graph of the pdf of 0’s and 1’s as a function of the local threshold obtained from Eq. (3). Straight solid and dashed lines represent locations of thresholds with Eqs. (3) and (4), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized distributions and BER after the local threshold is applied. Open triangles and open circles, 0’s and 1’s; crosses and solid curve represent the experimental and the model BER’s, respectively. Arrows point to the respective vertical scales.

Equations (5)

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f μ , λ I = λ e - λ μ λ μ λ I λ I + 1 ,
BER T = 1 2 T   f 0 μ λ I d I + 0 T   f 1 μ λ I d I .
T I 0 ave ,   I 1 ave =   1 - c I 0 ave + a σ 0 + c I 1 ave - b σ 1 .
T I 0 ave ,   I 0 ave = 1.2 I 0 ave + 0.18 I 1 ave .
f i I = 0   f i t ,   I × T / 200 T / 200 d T .

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