In an optical disk drive, it is well known that a tilt of the disk causes an offset in the tracking-error signal (TES). One effect of disk tilt is the introduction of a dc component to the TES, which can be largely corrected by operation of the tracking system at the midpoint between the maximum and the minimum values of the open-loop TES. However, this method of correcting for the dc shift in the TES does not correct for the effect of coma in the focused spot, which leads to track offset. The track offset of a system is defined as the distance between the peak irradiance in the focused spot and the center of the groove when the tracking system is operating at the midpoint between the maximum and the minimum values of the open-loop TES in the presence of disk tilt. Calculations are performed that show the dependence of track offset on various system parameters, including track pitch, wavelength, and numerical aperture and rim intensity of the objective lens, and on the regions of the beam used to generate the TES. The track offsets for several beam-segmentation schemes are calculated for a digital versatile disk that uses push–pull and differential phase tracking. It is shown that for differential phase tracking the value of track offset depends on the mark length.
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