Abstract

A pinhole-array x-ray spectrometer for laser-fusion experiments is demonstrated. An array of approximately 300 pinholes is placed in front of a flat-crystal spectrometer, yielding target images at photon energies ∼10 eV apart (for photon energies of ∼4 to 5 keV). For wideband radiation the images are two dimensional, whereas when a single spectral line is used, the field of view in the direction of dispersion is limited. However, single spectral line images can have a field of view sufficient for imaging the compressed target core. We show the image at the Ti-Kα-line fluorescence from a Ti-doped shell, which we show to be excited by continuum radiation from the compressed core. The Kα image delineates the cold, compressed shell at peak compression, which can otherwise be obtained only through backlighting. In addition, the array provides spectra of high spectral resolution because of the reduction in the effective source size.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. L. S. Lewis, J. McGlinchey, “Quasi-monochromatic, projection radiography of dense laser driven spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 53, 179–186 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pepin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. J. Marshall, J. A. Oertel, “A framed monochromatic x-ray microscope for ICF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 735–739 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, “Imaging the cold, compressed shell in laser implosions using the Kα fluorescence of a titanium dopant,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).
  10. D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (4)

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Oertel, “A framed monochromatic x-ray microscope for ICF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 735–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

C. L. S. Lewis, J. McGlinchey, “Quasi-monochromatic, projection radiography of dense laser driven spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 53, 179–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aglitskiy, Y.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Azechi, H.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baldis, H. A.

Bernard, J. E.

Bodner, S.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T. R.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Botto, D. J.

D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. K.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

Craxton, R. S.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delettrez, J. A.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forster, E.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamano, M.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hinterman, T. H.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kumpan, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lehecka, T.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

C. L. S. Lewis, J. McGlinchey, “Quasi-monochromatic, projection radiography of dense laser driven spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 53, 179–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, F. J.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Oertel, “A framed monochromatic x-ray microscope for ICF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 735–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, “Imaging the cold, compressed shell in laser implosions using the Kα fluorescence of a titanium dopant,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

McCrory, R. L.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McEnnan, J.

D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McGlinchey, J.

C. L. S. Lewis, J. McGlinchey, “Quasi-monochromatic, projection radiography of dense laser driven spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 53, 179–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S. F. B.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oda, S.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Oertel, J. A.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Oertel, “A framed monochromatic x-ray microscope for ICF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 735–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pawley, C.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

Pratt, R. H.

D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serlin, V.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soures, J. M.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uschmann, I.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verdon, C. P.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

Vollbrecht, M.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, “Imaging the cold, compressed shell in laser implosions using the Kα fluorescence of a titanium dopant,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

Yamanaka, C.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Azechi, S. Oda, M. Hamano, T. Sasaki, T. Yamanaka, C. Yamanaka, “Multifrequency x-ray backlighting of laser-imploded targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 998–1000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. L. S. Lewis, J. McGlinchey, “Quasi-monochromatic, projection radiography of dense laser driven spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 53, 179–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, “Signatures of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped, laser-driven target implosions,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 3021–3030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Botto, J. McEnnan, R. H. Pratt, “Analytic description of photoeffect from atomic ions,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 580–586 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The upgrade to the OMEGA laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldman, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Oertel, “A framed monochromatic x-ray microscope for ICF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 735–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, “Imaging the cold, compressed shell in laser implosions using the Kα fluorescence of a titanium dopant,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the pinhole array placed in front of the spectrometer. Each of approximately 300 pinholes yields a narrow-band, 2-D image at a slightly shifted photon energy. The 58-μm shift due to the tilt in the vertical direction yields an energy shift between adjacent images of ∼6 to 10 eV in the range of 4 to 5 keV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Part of the ∼300 array-spectrometer images obtained with an array of 50-μm pinholes, from a Ti-coated target implosion [shot (a)]. Because of the vertical tilt in the array (see Fig. 1), the target section imaged by a given spectral line shifts for successive images in that direction. Lines (such as the Heα line) from a different target location can reappear on a neighboring image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line out of Fig. 2 in the direction of dispersion (avoiding the cores), showing that a high-resolution spectrum from a large source can be obtained with a pinhole-array spectrometer. For lines that are much stronger than the continuum, the images (that are due to the continuum) can be subtracted. The line at ∼4.8 keV is the Ti Heα line (from a different target location) transmitted though an adjacent pinhole.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the Ti Heα line manifold simultaneously obtained with and without the pinhole array. The Heα line (2p 1 P - 1s transition in Ti20+) is well resolved from its low-energy satellites when the array is used. Without the array, the lines are considerably broadened by the source size (∼0.8 μm) as well as affected by the spatial distribution of source emission.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Part of the array images from target shot (b). The Ti20+ lines are emitted from the periphery of the target. On the other hand, a ring of emission at the wavelength of Ti Kα line is emitted around the compressed core. The Kα line is excited by core radiation, and its image delineates the cold shell at peak compression (see Fig. 6).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra recorded by a streaked spectrograph at three times during the implosion of shot (b). The Ti20+ line emission occurs during the laser-pulse irradiation, whereas the K-edge absorption and the concomitant Kα line emission occur ∼1 ns after the end of the laser pulse, at the time of peak compression. These results confirm the conclusions drawn from Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Line outs through images of Fig. 5, in the vertical direction (perpendicular to the direction of dispersion). The on Kα curve (solid) is through the center of the second image from the left; the off Kα (dashed) curve is an average of line outs through the centers of the two neighboring images on each side. (b) The difference between the two curves in Fig. 7(a) delineates the cold Ti-doped shell.

Equations (1)

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d P M x / d x = P T x + r - P T x - r ,

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