Abstract

The practical use of a grazing x-ray telescope is demonstrated for hard-x-ray imaging as hard as 40 keV by means of a depth-graded d-spacing multilayer, a so-called supermirror. Platinum–carbon multilayers of 26 layer pairs in three blocks with a different periodic length d of 3–5 nm were designed to enhance the reflectivity in the energy range from 24 to 36 keV at a grazing angle of 0.3 deg. The multilayers were deposited on thin-replica-foil mirrors by a magnetron dc sputtering system. The reflectivity was measured to be 25%–30% in this energy range; 20 mirror shells thus deposited were assembled into the tightly nested grazing-incidence telescope. The focused hard-x-ray image was observed with a newly developed position-sensitive CdZnTe solid-state detector. The angular resolution of this telescope was found to be 2.4 arc min in the half-power diameter.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).
  4. M. Kumakhov, F. Kumakhov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Fraser, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 191–199.
  6. J. Schelten, K. Mika, “Calculated reflectivities of supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 160, 287–294 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Inoue, “The Astro-E mission,” in Proceedings of the 11th Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (University Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 239–241.
  9. K. Yamashita, “Multilayer x-ray optical systems for future x-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 115–121.
  10. Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. The InFOCμS proposal is summarized on a web site: http://lheawww.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/balloon/FOCUS.html .

1996

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

1991

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Kumakhov, F. Kumakhov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Schelten, K. Mika, “Calculated reflectivities of supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 160, 287–294 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, K.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Barthelemy, S.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bautz, M. W.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birsa, F. B.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boldt, E. A.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Branduardi, G.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Briel, U.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burke, B. E.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, P. J.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. P.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, A.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fabricant, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Forman, W.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G.

G. Fraser, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 191–199.

Freund, A.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, N.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grindlay, J.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harnden, F. R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, D. C.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Helfand, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. P.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hoghoj, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holt, S. S.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Inoue, H.

H. Inoue, “The Astro-E mission,” in Proceedings of the 11th Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (University Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 239–241.

Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Jalota, L.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Joensen, K. D.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kellogg, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kumakhov, F.

M. Kumakhov, F. Kumakhov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kumakhov, M.

M. Kumakhov, F. Kumakhov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Long, K.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Markert, T.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mika, K.

J. Schelten, K. Mika, “Calculated reflectivities of supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 160, 287–294 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mountain, R. W.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakajo, N.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naya, J.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novick, R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Odom, J.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, A.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petre, R.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricker, G. R.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Sato, N.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schelten, J.

J. Schelten, K. Mika, “Calculated reflectivities of supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 160, 287–294 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seward, F.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, C.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tananbaum, H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teagarden, B.

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, Y.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Topka, K.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, O.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Tueller, J.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchibori, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Van Speybroeck, L.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, “Multilayer x-ray optical systems for future x-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 115–121.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Astrophys. J.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein(HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci.

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, D. C. Harrison, M. W. Bautz, J. P. Doty, G. R. Ricker, P. J. Daniels, “An abuttable CCD imager for visible and x-ray focal plane arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-38, 1069–1076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

J. Schelten, K. Mika, “Calculated reflectivities of supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 160, 287–294 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

M. Kumakhov, F. Kumakhov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Fraser, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 191–199.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Inoue, “The Astro-E mission,” in Proceedings of the 11th Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (University Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 239–241.

K. Yamashita, “Multilayer x-ray optical systems for future x-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. Turner, M. G. Watson, eds., Special Report XRA97/02 (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, Leicester, UK, 1997), pp. 115–121.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. W. Chan, “Development of balloonborne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

The InFOCμS proposal is summarized on a web site: http://lheawww.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/balloon/FOCUS.html .

A. Parsons, S. Barthelemy, F. B. Birsa, N. Gehrels, J. Naya, J. Odom, S. Singh, C. Stahl, J. Tueller, B. Teagarden, “CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitude,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, B. D. Ramsey, T. A. Parnell, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 432–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of three types of x-ray mirror: Calculated reflectivity at a grazing angle of 0.3 deg are plotted for dashed curve, a single gold layer; dotted curve, a Pt/C multilayer (44 layer pairs with a periodic length of 4 nm); solid curve, Pt/C graded multilayers (see text for parameters).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated peak reflectivity of Pt/C multilayers of different d spacing for an incident angle of 0.3 deg. The reflectivity is plotted against the number of layer pairs N for d of solid curve, 4.8 nm; dashed curve, 4.0 nm; dot–dashed curve, 3.6 nm; dotted curve, 3.3 nm, corresponding to x-ray energy of 26, 30, 34, and 37 keV, respectively. The line from the origin is tangential to the solid curve at point P (N = 5–6 for the first block). Beyond point P the peak reflectivity depends on layer number N in a lower power than unity. This is the maximum layer number necessary for the first block, since the integrated reflectivity cannot be increased further (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhanced reflectivity calculated for the Pt/C supermirror of four blocks described in the text at a grazing angle of 0.3 deg. The dashed curves from left to right correspond to the sensitive energy bands of blocks from the outermost surface to the substrate: I, d = 4.6–5.0 nm, N = 5; II, d = 4.0 nm, N = 8; III, d = 3.6 nm, N = 13; IV, d = 3.3 nm, N = 18. The solid curve shows the reflectivity of the four-block supermirror. The Γ value is fixed at 0.4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured reflectivity of the three-block supermirror on replica foil at an incident angle of 0.3 deg. (b) Reflectivity of the same sample at an incident angle of 0.5 deg for comparison. The dashed curves show the calculated values1 fit to the observed ones.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quadrant of the demonstration model telescope and a replica foil with supermirror coating. The height of the housing is 23 cm, and the radius is ∼22 cm. The edges of 10 foils are seen at the top of the housing. Foil length is ∼15 cm and height is 10 cm. 170 foils are to be mounted in Astro-E. X rays come from the top and are concentrated at a focus on the symmetrical axis 4.75 m away.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A 100-μm CdZnTe strip detector with groups of five strip electrodes connected to prepare 500-μm strip electrodes. Two identical groups of strip electrodes are attached on the front and the rear sides of the CdZnTe detector to find the two-dimensional position where a hard-x-ray photon is detected. The ruler is in centimeters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hard-x-ray (20–50-keV) image produced by the demonstration model telescope with a supermirror. Many images by the CdZnTe strip detector are combined to cover a broad image of a quadrant of a telescope. One pixel of 0.5 mm square corresponds to 0.32 arc min in the measuring situation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Encircled energy function in the energy band: ○, 20–50 keV; ●, 4.5 keV. The fraction contained in a circle is plotted against the diameter of the circle centered at the image peak. Both are normalized by the total flux, including flux that is estimated to be found outside the 7-arc min diameter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Combined energy response of the demonstration model telescope. The spectrum reflected twice in two stages of the quadrant of a telescope with 10 foils is divided by the incident spectrum.

Metrics