Abstract

Two recently developed optical coatings, ion-beam-deposited silicon carbide and ion-beam-deposited boron carbide, are very attractive as coatings on optical components for instruments for space astronomy and earth sciences operating in the extreme-UV spectral region because of their high reflectivity, significantly higher than any conventional coating below 105 nm. To take full advantage of these coatings in space applications, it is important to establish their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic oxygen and other environmental effects at low-earth-orbit altitudes. The first two flights of the Surface Effects Sample Monitor experiments flown on the ORFEUS-SPAS and the CRISTA-SPAS Shuttle missions provided the opportunity to study the effects of space exposure on these materials. The results indicate a need to protect ion-beam-deposited silicon-carbide-coated optical components from environmental effects in a low-earth orbit. The boron-carbide thin-film coating is a more robust coating able to withstand short-term exposure to atomic oxygen in a low-earth-orbit environment.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. R. Gull, Howard Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion beam deposited boron carbide coatings for the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.-R. Schmitt, H. Swoboda, H. Rosteck, “Scatter and roughness measurements on optical surfaces exposed to space,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1530, 104–110 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. National Space Science Data Center, Code 632, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771.
  11. J. F. Osantowski, “Reflectance and optical constants for Cer-Vit from 250 to 1050,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 834–838 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Evans East, 666 Plainsboro Road, Suite 1236, N.J. 08536.
  13. D. Schwarcz, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Degradation in EUV reflectance of ion-sputtered SiC films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 354, 535–540 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Schwarcz, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Degradation in EUV reflectance of ion-sputtered SiC films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 354, 535–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1974 (1)

Blumenstock, G. M.

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion beam deposited boron carbide coatings for the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choyke, W. J.

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleetwood, C. M.

H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ginter, M. L.

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, J. C.

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gull, T. R.

Gum, J. S.

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hampe, J.

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H.

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzig, Howard

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

D. Schwarcz, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Degradation in EUV reflectance of ion-sputtered SiC films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 354, 535–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion beam deposited boron carbide coatings for the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kratz, F.

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neubauer, R.

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Osantowski, J. F.

Partlow, W. D.

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raikar, G. N.

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, G.

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosteck, H.

D.-R. Schmitt, H. Swoboda, H. Rosteck, “Scatter and roughness measurements on optical surfaces exposed to space,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1530, 104–110 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, D.-R.

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D.-R. Schmitt, H. Swoboda, H. Rosteck, “Scatter and roughness measurements on optical surfaces exposed to space,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1530, 104–110 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwarcz, D.

D. Schwarcz, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Degradation in EUV reflectance of ion-sputtered SiC films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 354, 535–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swoboda, H.

D.-R. Schmitt, H. Swoboda, H. Rosteck, “Scatter and roughness measurements on optical surfaces exposed to space,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1530, 104–110 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toft, A. R.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

J. F. Osantowski, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coating technology for the EUV,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 185–201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

D. Schwarcz, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Degradation in EUV reflectance of ion-sputtered SiC films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 354, 535–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

G. N. Raikar, J. C. Gregory, W. D. Partlow, H. Herzig, W. J. Choyke, “Surface characterization of SiC mirrors exposed to fast atomic oxygen,” Surf. Interface Anal. 23, 77–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D.-R. Schmitt, H. Swoboda, H. Rosteck, “Scatter and roughness measurements on optical surfaces exposed to space,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1530, 104–110 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D.-R. Schmitt, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, R. Neubauer, H. Swoboda, J. Hampe, “Degradation of optical components in the low earth orbit,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. M. Dewandre, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 449–465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

National Space Science Data Center, Code 632, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771.

Evans East, 666 Plainsboro Road, Suite 1236, N.J. 08536.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SiC exposed to the low-earth environment on the first SESAM mission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SiC exposed 160 deg to the ram for 167 h, flight sample 181, control 28.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

B4C exposed 0 deg to the ram for 1 h 15 min, flight sample 18, control 154.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

B4C exposed 26 deg to the ram for 167 h, flight sample 72, control 25.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

B4C exposed 160 deg to the ram for 167 h, flight sample 67, control 99.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SiC and B4C Flight Samples for the SESAM Experiment

Metrics