Abstract

The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films as a potential for sensing applications are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold-island films were annealed at 600 °C to produce spheroidal shape particles that exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based on nonretarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results show an interesting potential for biosensing or environmental monitoring applications.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Ritchie, “Surface plasmons in solids,” Surf. Sci. 34, 1–8 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).
  4. J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Warmack, S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2246–2252 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical absorbance of silver ellipsoidal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 927–933 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Bloemer, M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Surface electromagnetic modes in prolate spheroids of gold, aluminum, and copper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2552–2559 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.
  14. F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.
  15. R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. W. Little, “The radiative decay of plasma oscillations on nonplanar metal surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1982).
  17. R. H. Ritchie, J. C. Ashley, T. L. Ferrell, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 3.
  18. F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).
  19. The authors are preparing the following paper for publication: “Plasmon fiber optic sensor.”
  20. T. R. Downey, “Gold island thin film surface plasmon excitation on an optical fiber,” M.S. thesis (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1998).

1997 (1)

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical absorbance of silver ellipsoidal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 927–933 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. J. Warmack, S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

1984 (2)

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Surface plasmons in solids,” Surf. Sci. 34, 1–8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, J. C.

R. H. Ritchie, J. C. Ashley, T. L. Ferrell, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 3.

Bigeon, J. L.

J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bijeon, J. L.

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

Buncick, M. C.

M. J. Bloemer, M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Surface electromagnetic modes in prolate spheroids of gold, aluminum, and copper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2552–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical absorbance of silver ellipsoidal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 927–933 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.

Calcott, T. A.

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

Callcott, T. A.

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Clapsadle, R. D.

R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.

Crilly, P. B.

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

Downey, T.

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

Downey, T. R.

R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.

T. R. Downey, “Gold island thin film surface plasmon excitation on an optical fiber,” M.S. thesis (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1998).

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Elghanian, R.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrell, T. L.

M. J. Bloemer, M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Surface electromagnetic modes in prolate spheroids of gold, aluminum, and copper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2552–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical absorbance of silver ellipsoidal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 927–933 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

R. H. Ritchie, J. C. Ashley, T. L. Ferrell, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 3.

R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, S. L.

R. J. Warmack, S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, T.

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kennerly, S. W.

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Letsinger, R. L.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, J. W.

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, “The radiative decay of plasma oscillations on nonplanar metal surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1982).

Mangeant, S.

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

Meriaudeau, F.

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

Mirkin, C. A.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucic, R. C.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norman, S.

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Passian, A.

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Surface plasmons in solids,” Surf. Sci. 34, 1–8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, J. C. Ashley, T. L. Ferrell, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 3.

Royer, P.

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Storhoff, J. J.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warmack, R. J.

J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bloemer, M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Surface electromagnetic modes in prolate spheroids of gold, aluminum, and copper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2552–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Buncick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical absorbance of silver ellipsoidal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 927–933 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warmack, S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wig, A.

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Am. Sci. (1)

T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Calcott, R. J. Warmack, “Plasmons and surfaces,” Am. Sci. 73, 344–353 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Goudonnet, J. L. Bigeon, R. J. Warmack, “Optical properties of submicrometer-size silver spheroids formed on a graphite substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3093–3096 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

J. W. Little, T. L. Ferrell, T. A. Callcott, E. T. Arakawa, “Radiative decay of surface plasmons on oblate spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5953–5956 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warmack, S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Little, T. A. Callcott, T. L. Ferrell, E. T. Arakawa, “Surface-plasmon radiation from ellipsoidal silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1606–1615 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kennerly, J. W. Little, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Optical properties of heated Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 2926–2929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Norman, T. Anderson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–695 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277, 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (2)

P. Royer, J. L. Bijeon, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical absorbance of silver oblate particles, substrate and shape effects,” Surf. Sci. 217, 384–402 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, “Surface plasmons in solids,” Surf. Sci. 34, 1–8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. L. Bigeon, P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Effects of a silicon substrate on surface plasmon spectra in silver island films,” Thin Solid Films 155, L1–L3 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. W. Little, “The radiative decay of plasma oscillations on nonplanar metal surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1982).

R. H. Ritchie, J. C. Ashley, T. L. Ferrell, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 3.

F. Meriaudeau, T. R. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, M. C. Buncick, T. L. Ferrell, “Fiber optic sensor on gold island plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

The authors are preparing the following paper for publication: “Plasmon fiber optic sensor.”

T. R. Downey, “Gold island thin film surface plasmon excitation on an optical fiber,” M.S. thesis (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1998).

R. D. Clapsadle, M. C. Buncick, T. R. Downey, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” the Southeastern Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 November 1997.

F. Meriaudeau, T. Downey, A. Passian, A. Wig, S. Mangeant, P. B. Crilly, T. L. Ferrell, “Development of a fiber optic sensor based on gold island plasmon resonance,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers/1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, 27–30 July 1998.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three quartz slides onto which a 4-nm gold film was evaporated. Thereafter the slides were annealed for 4 min at different temperatures. The slides tend to redden with high temperature, which corresponds to a shift in the lower wavelength for the plasmon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2 μm × 2 μm atomic force microscope image of a thin (4-nm) gold evaporation on a quartz substrate after a 4-min anneal at 800 °C (512 samples).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

500 nm × 500 nm atomic force microscope image of a thin (4-nm) gold evaporation on a quartz substrate after a 4-min anneal at 800 °C (512 samples).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the sample: θ is the incident angle, T is the optical transmittance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental absorbance at normal incidence of a 4-nm thin film that has been annealed for 4 min at the indicated temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated values of the dielectric functions and their corresponding resonance positions as a function of the minor-axis to major-axis ratio (R). Curves extending to short wavelengths describe surface-plasmon oscillations with charge antinodes on the minor axis (l = 1, m = 0), whereas the curves extending to long wavelengths describe oscillations with charge antinodes on the major axis (l = 1, m = 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental absorbance for different angles with nonpolarized light for a 4-nm gold evaporation on quartz. An identical slide at the same angle without gold was used in the reference beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental absorbance for different angles with p-polarized light for a 4-nm gold evaporation on quartz. An identical slide at the same angle without gold was used in the reference beam.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental absorbance for different angles with s-polarized light for a 4-nm gold evaporation on quartz. An identical slide at the same angle was used without gold in the reference beam.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated p-polarized absorbance for different angles for a 4-nm film composed of particles with a shape given by R = 0.44. Comparison of particles on a quartz substrate, surrounded by air and surrounded by a liquid with a refraction index of 1.5.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental absorbance at 60° using nonpolarized light for a 4-nm gold evaporation on quartz. Solid curve, experimental absorbance for the 4-nm gold evaporation on quartz, with air on the top of the gold. Thick solid curve, same as solid curve except that the gold is covered by a liquid with an index of refraction of 1.3. An identical slide at the same angle without gold, but covered with the test liquid, was used in the reference beam.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated values of ε11 as a function of the parameter R (minor- to major-axis ratio) for gold island set on a quartz substrate and covered with different dielectric medium. Knowing the values of ε11 and the dielectric function of the gold, one can easily determine the resonance position as a function of the shape parameter for different liquids surrounding the gold particles lying on a quartz substrate.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of the experimental and the theoretical values for the shift of the long-wavelength mode of the surface plasmon. Each theoretical value has been calculated by our first estimating the value of the parameter R and then using this value to determine the values of ε11 and ε10 (Eq. 13). Once these values were evaluated, we calculated the resonance frequency.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Calculated values of ε11 and ε10 for the particles embedded in a liquid with a refraction index of 1.7 (curve with the squares) and for the particles resting on the quartz surrounded by the same liquid (curve with the triangles). Also presented (solid curve) are the calculated data for particles lying on a quartz substrate and surrounded by air. Using these values and R = 0.4, we show the resonance frequency to be shifted as far as 25 nm more in the case of the embedded particles.

Equations (13)

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ε lm = P l , m i η 0 d Q l , m i η / d η η = η 0 Q l , m i η 0 d P l , m i η / d η η = η 0 ,
η 0 = R 1 - R 2 1 / 2 ,
ε 1,0 = 1 + 1 1 + η 0 2 η 0   cot - 1   η 0 - 1 ,
ε 1,1 = 1 - 2 1 + η 0 2 η 0   cot - 1   η 0 - η 0 2 .
p x = 2 a 3 1 + η 0 2 1 / 2 ε ω - 1 3 Q 1,1 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,1 i η 0   E x ω ,
p y = 2 a 3 1 + η 0 2 1 / 2 ε ω - 1 3 Q 1,1 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,1 i η 0   E y ω ,
p z = - a 3 η 0 ε ω - 1 3 Q 1,0 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,0 i η 0   E z ω ,
E = ω 2   exp ikr c 2 r n × p × n ,
σ tot , s = 4 π ω c Im 2 a 3 1 + η 0 2 1 / 2 ε ω - 1 3 Q 1,1 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,1 i η 0 ,
σ tot , p = 4 π ω c Im 2 a 3 1 + η 0 2 1 / 2 ε ω - 1 cos 2 θ 3 Q 1,1 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,1 i η 0 + - a 3 η 0 ε ω - 1 sin 2 θ 3 Q 1,0 i η 0 ε ω - ε 1,0 i η 0 .
A = log 10 1 1 - N σ ,
ε 2 ω + ε ω ε a ω + ε 0 ω coth Ka + ε a ω ε 0 ω = 0 .
ε 2 ω - ε ω ε 11 + ε 10 ε 0 ω + ε a ω 2 + ε a ω ε 0 ω ε 11 ε 10 = 0 .

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