Abstract

The aberrations of a multilayer-coated reflective Schwarzschild objective, which are influenced both by mirror surface profiles and by multilayer coatings, are evaluated with a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer operating in the extreme ultraviolet. Using wave-front measurements at multiple wavelengths near 13.4 nm, we observed chromatic aberrations and wavelength-dependent transmission changes that were due to molybdenum–silicon multilayer coatings. The effects of chromatic vignetting due to limited multilayer reflection passbands on the imaging performance of the Schwarzschild optic are considered. The coating characteristics extracted from the interferometry data on the two-mirror optical system are compared with previously reported coating properties measured on individual mirror substrates.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  15. D. L. Windt, Bell Laboratories, Room 1D-456, 700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, September1997).

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

V. G. Kohn, “On the theory of reflectivity by an x-ray multilayer mirror,” Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Caticha, “Reflection and transmission of x rays by graded interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 9214–9223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Arling, R. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Batson, P. J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Bokor, J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Grievenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase-shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

Caticha, A.

A. Caticha, “Reflection and transmission of x rays by graded interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 9214–9223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Denham, P. E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fetter, L. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Goldberg, K. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grievenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Grievenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase-shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

Gullikson, E. M.

Haney, S. J.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Himel, M. D.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Hull, R.

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K. H.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

T. E. Jewell, “Effect of amplitude and phase dispersion on images in multilayer-coated soft-x-ray projection systems,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 113–118.

Kohn, V. G.

V. G. Kohn, “On the theory of reflectivity by an x-ray multilayer mirror,” Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Lee, S. H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Medecki, H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nissen, R. P.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Paul, P. H.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Sweatt, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Tejnil, E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Tennant, D. M.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered synthetic microstructures as Bragg diffractors for x rays and extreme ultraviolet: theory and predicted performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Underwood, “Reflecting multilayer coatings for EUV projection lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 162–166.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Wilkerson, G. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

D. L. Windt, Bell Laboratories, Room 1D-456, 700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, September1997).

Wood, O. R.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Caticha, “Reflection and transmission of x rays by graded interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 9214–9223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

V. G. Kohn, “On the theory of reflectivity by an x-ray multilayer mirror,” Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, “Reflecting multilayer coatings for EUV projection lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 162–166.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.

J. E. Grievenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase-shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, Bell Laboratories, Room 1D-456, 700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, September1997).

T. E. Jewell, “Effect of amplitude and phase dispersion on images in multilayer-coated soft-x-ray projection systems,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 113–118.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Components of the phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer for characterization of the multilayer-coated Schwarzschild optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured chromatic effects produced by multilayer reflective coatings. (a) Schematic representation of the subapertures selecting portions of the annular full aperture of the Schwarzschild optic. As the wavelength is changed, (b) the transmission and (c) the wave-front phase vary in subaperture A. The transmission peak is near 13.4-nm wavelength. (d) The measured differences between the aberrations at the indicated wavelengths and the 13.4-nm wavelength demonstrate the presence of multilayer coating phase aberrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The chromatic aberrations of the 0.07-NA subaperture of the Schwarzschild objective are revealed in the measured rms difference between the wave fronts at different wavelengths and the wave front at 13.4 nm. (b) Overall normalized transmission through the 0.07-NA subaperture measured as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission through the Schwarzschild optic versus wavelength at the indicated positions within the 0.07-NA subaperture. (b) Measured transmission curves compared with (c) the calculation that uses the multilayer periods measured in Ref. 5. The calculation assumes multilayer interfaces with 0.7-nm interface thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Center and (b) FWHM bandwidth of the transmission passband for the 10× Schwarzschild optic. Calculations based on the multilayer design and on previously reported multilayer period measurements are compared with measurements in two different portions of the annular aperture of the Schwarzschild optic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated passband (a) center and (b) width along the radial direction of the annular aperture of the 10× Schwarzschild objective. Multilayer periods are offset by the indicated constants from those reported in Ref. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Period of multilayer reflective coatings on the primary and the secondary mirrors versus the radial position on the substrate. The multilayer design, the measurement from Ref. 5, and the model matching the interferometer data are compared.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured and calculated transmission through the Schwarzschild optic at several wavelengths. The transmissions measured (a) in a 0.08-NA subregion of the annulus near subaperture C and (b) in the 0.07-NA subaperture A are compared with (c) the transmission calculations that assume coatings with 40 bilayers, a rms interfacial thickness of 0.7 nm, a molybdenum-to-silicon thickness ratio of 0.375, and coating periods given in Fig. 7. In addition to the multilayer properties, the measured images include the intensity profile of the illuminating beam, which can be most clearly observed for the data at 13.3 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured and calculated chromatic phase effects in the Schwarzschild optic at several wavelengths, represented by the difference in the aberrations at two different wavelengths. (a) The phase effects measured in the 0.07-NA subaperture are compared with (b) the calculations of chromatic aberrations that assume coatings with 40 bilayers, a rms interfacial thickness of 0.7 nm, a molybdenum-to-silicon thickness ratio of 0.375, and coating periods given in Fig. 7.

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