It is well known that an interferogram can be demodulated to find the wave-front shape if a linear carrier is introduced. We show that it can also be demodulated if it has many closed fringes or a circular carrier appears. A basic assumption is that the carrier fringes are of a bandwidth adequate to contain the wave-front distortion. This phase determination, called here demodulation, is made in the space domain, as opposed to demodulation in Fourier space, but the low-pass filter characteristics must be properly chosen. For academic purposes a holographic analogy of this demodulation process is also presented, which shows that the common technique of multiplying by a sine function and a cosine function is equivalent to holographically reconstructing with a tilted-flat wave front. Alternatively, a defocused (spherical) wave front can be used as a reference to perform the reconstruction or demodulation of some closed-fringe interferograms.
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