Abstract

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument, which was launched aboard the second European Remoting Sensing satellite ESA-ERS2 in 1995. For its long-term radiometric and spectral calibration the GOME observes the sun and less frequently the moon on a regular basis. These measurements of the lunar radiance and solar irradiance have been used in a study to determine, for the first time to the authors’ knowledge, the geometric lunar albedo from 240 to 800 nm at high spectral resolution from space. For a waning moon there is good agreement with ground-based measurements in the visible region and with recent space-based measurements in the ultraviolet region. In addition, the use of these measurements for the characterization of in-orbit degradation of instruments operating in this spectral region has been adequately demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Hahne, “Scientific achievements of GOME-1 and expectations for GOME-2,” Rep. SP-1212 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).
  30. I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.
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1998 (1)

M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

1980 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric HCHO, HONO, O3, NO2 and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7463 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Hapke, “An improved theoretical lunar photometric function,” Astron J. 71, 333–339 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical photometric function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4586 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

G. Rougier, “L’Albedo des planetes et de la lune,” Astronomie 51, 165–181 (1937).

1934 (1)

G. Rougier, “Photometrie globale de la lune,” Astronomie 48, 220–288 (1934).

Aben, I.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

Brault, J. W.

Buchwitz, M.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

Burrows, J. P.

M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, “Studies on the precision of GOME irradiance and radiance products and GOME measurements of OCIO and BrO over Antarctica,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 93–109.

M. Eisinger, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, “Studies on DOAS column retrieval from the UV and visible measurements of GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 161–174.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, “SO2, OClO, BrO and other minor trace gases from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME),” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 675–680.

J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, K. V. Chance, “GOME and SCIAMACHY: remote sensing of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases,” in Air Pollution Research Report 34: Polar Stratospheric Ozone Proceedings of the First European Workshop, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, eds. (Commission of European Committees, Brussels, Belgium, 1991), pp. 99–102.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profile from GOME satellite data. I. Algorithm description,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 749–754.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

Cebula, R. P.

M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, K. V. Chance, “GOME and SCIAMACHY: remote sensing of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases,” in Air Pollution Research Report 34: Polar Stratospheric Ozone Proceedings of the First European Workshop, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, eds. (Commission of European Committees, Brussels, Belgium, 1991), pp. 99–102.

Crutzen, P. J.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

DeBeek, R.

R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profile from GOME satellite data. I. Algorithm description,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 749–754.

Dobber, M. R.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

Eisinger, M.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, “Studies on the precision of GOME irradiance and radiance products and GOME measurements of OCIO and BrO over Antarctica,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 93–109.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, “SO2, OClO, BrO and other minor trace gases from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME),” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 675–680.

M. Eisinger, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, “Studies on DOAS column retrieval from the UV and visible measurements of GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 161–174.

Fastie, W. G.

R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, W.

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goede, A. P. H.

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

Guy, J. H.

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Guzzi, R.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Hahne, A.

A. Hahne, “Scientific achievements of GOME-1 and expectations for GOME-2,” Rep. SP-1212 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, “An improved theoretical lunar photometric function,” Astron J. 71, 333–339 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B. W.

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical photometric function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4586 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Heath, D. F.

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hegels, E.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

Helderman, F.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

Henderson, B. D.

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. C.

R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hölzle, E.

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoogen, R.

R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profile from GOME satellite data. I. Algorithm description,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 749–754.

Hoogeveen, R.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

Irvine, W. M.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S. J.

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, T. J.

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Kieffer, H. H.

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kluepfel, T.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

Klupfel, T.

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

Korpela, S.

A. Vuorilehto, S. Korpela, “Study of the sun and the moon as radiation calibration targets,” Rep. SSF-ESA-SM-0002 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1994).

Kreuger, A. J.

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, “SO2, OClO, BrO and other minor trace gases from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME),” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 675–680.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

Lane, A. P.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lucke, R. L.

R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maudlin, L. E.

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

McCormick, M. P.

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Mount, G. H.

Muller, C.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Perner, D.

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric HCHO, HONO, O3, NO2 and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7463 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Platt, U.

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric HCHO, HONO, O3, NO2 and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7463 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Pommereau, J.-P.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Richter, A.

M. Eisinger, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, “Studies on DOAS column retrieval from the UV and visible measurements of GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 161–174.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, “Studies on the precision of GOME irradiance and radiance products and GOME measurements of OCIO and BrO over Antarctica,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 93–109.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, “SO2, OClO, BrO and other minor trace gases from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME),” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 675–680.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

Roeder, H. A.

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rougier, G.

G. Rougier, “L’Albedo des planetes et de la lune,” Astronomie 51, 165–181 (1937).

G. Rougier, “Photometrie globale de la lune,” Astronomie 48, 220–288 (1934).

Rozanov, V.

R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profile from GOME satellite data. I. Algorithm description,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 749–754.

Sanders, R. W.

Schneider, W.

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, K. V. Chance, “GOME and SCIAMACHY: remote sensing of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases,” in Air Pollution Research Report 34: Polar Stratospheric Ozone Proceedings of the First European Workshop, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, eds. (Commission of European Committees, Brussels, Belgium, 1991), pp. 99–102.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Spurr, R. J.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Stam, D. M.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.

Stammes, P.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

van der Woerd, H.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Vaughn, W. R.

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Visser, H.

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vuorilehto, A.

A. Vuorilehto, S. Korpela, “Study of the sun and the moon as radiation calibration targets,” Rep. SSF-ESA-SM-0002 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1994).

Weber, M.

M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

Wildey, R. L.

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wittrock, F.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

Zaun, N. H.

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Acta Astronaut. (1)

J. P. Burrows, E. Hölzle, A. P. H. Goede, H. Visser, W. Fricke, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography,” Acta Astronaut. 35, 445–451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron J. (1)

B. Hapke, “An improved theoretical lunar photometric function,” Astron J. 71, 333–339 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J. (2)

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lucke, R. C. Henry, W. G. Fastie, “Far-ultraviolet albedo of the moon,” Astron. J. 81, 1162–1169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Astronomie (2)

G. Rougier, “Photometrie globale de la lune,” Astronomie 48, 220–288 (1934).

G. Rougier, “L’Albedo des planetes et de la lune,” Astronomie 51, 165–181 (1937).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

S. J. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, R. P. Cebula, T. J. Kelly, “Observations of the lunar geometric albedo during the ATLAS-3 mission,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2297–2300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical photometric function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4586 (1963).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric HCHO, HONO, O3, NO2 and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7463 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

K. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone from UV/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. F. Heath, A. J. Kreuger, H. A. Roeder, B. D. Henderson, “The solar backscatter ultraviolet and total ozone mapping spectrometer (sbuv/toms) for Nimbus-G,” Opt. Eng. 14, 323–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Maudlin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Sol. Phys. (1)

M. Weber, J. P. Burrows, R. P. Cebula, “GOME solar UV/vis irradiance measurements between 1995 and 1997: first results on proxy solar activity,” Sol. Phys. 177, 63–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, D. M. Stam, P. Stammes, “Error analysis of polarisation measurements by GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 51–59.

R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profile from GOME satellite data. I. Algorithm description,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 749–754.

J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, K. V. Chance, “GOME and SCIAMACHY: remote sensing of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases,” in Air Pollution Research Report 34: Polar Stratospheric Ozone Proceedings of the First European Workshop, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, eds. (Commission of European Committees, Brussels, Belgium, 1991), pp. 99–102.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, “Global ozone monitoring experiment: interim science report,” Rep. SP-1151 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

European Space Agency , “GOME users manual,” Rep. SP-1182 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

World Meteorological Organisation , “Global ozone research and monitoring project—scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1994,” Rep. 37 (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995).

J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. Callander, eds., “Climate change 1995: the science of climate change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change rep. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, “Studies on the precision of GOME irradiance and radiance products and GOME measurements of OCIO and BrO over Antarctica,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 93–109.

M. Eisinger, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, “Studies on DOAS column retrieval from the UV and visible measurements of GOME,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 161–174.

M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, “SO2, OClO, BrO and other minor trace gases from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME),” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 675–680.

A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Buchwitz, M. Weber, “Validation of GOME O3 and NO2 measurements in Bremen, Ny-Aalesund and Neumayer,” in Proceedings of the GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, P. Fletcher, F. Lodge, eds., Proc. WPP-108 (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 153–160.

E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, T. Klupfel, D. Perner, J. P. Burrows, “Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Global distribution of BrO,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 681–685.

D. Perner, T. Kluepfel, E. Hegels, P. J. Crutzen, J. P. Burrows, “First results on tropospheric observations by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME, on ERS-2,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 647–652.

A. Vuorilehto, S. Korpela, “Study of the sun and the moon as radiation calibration targets,” Rep. SSF-ESA-SM-0002 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1994).

A. Hahne, “Scientific achievements of GOME-1 and expectations for GOME-2,” Rep. SP-1212 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).

I. Aben, M. R. Dobber, F. Helderman, R. Hoogeveen, P. Stammes, A. P. H. Goede, “First results of the GOBELIN project: GOME breadboard model characterisation under ambient and vacuum conditions,” in Proceedings of the Third European Remote-Sensing Satellite Scientific Symposium, T. D. Guyenne, D. Danesy, eds., Proc. SP-414 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 711–714.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the GOME optical system (taken from Weber et al.18).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the lunar radiance intensity on the lunar phase angle from Lucke et al.28 and Lane and Irvine24 (labeled Lane et al.) for a number of wavelengths. The Lane–Irvine results apply mainly to waxing-moon phases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength dependence of the lunar phase correction factor I(g, λ) applicable to the GOME case (g = 79.7°). Solid curve, a third-order polynomial fit used for the phase correction of the lunar radiance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lunar geometric albedo calculated from GOME data obtained on 18 July 1995 with the wavelength-dependent lunar phase correction factor I(g, λ) of Fig. 3 compared with literature data from Lucke et al.28 and Janz et al.27

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lunar geometric albedo calculated from GOME data obtained on 18 July 1995 with a wavelength-independent lunar phase correction factor of 0.11 compared with literature data from Lucke et al.28 and Janz et al.27

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Zoomed part of the ultraviolet wavelength region of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratios of two sun spectra and two moon spectra obtained on July 1995 and November 1995.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ratios of two sun spectra and two moon spectra obtained on July 1995 and September 1996.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral Characteristics of the GOME Optical Channel and Polarization-Measurement Device

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S Sun λ = irr Sun λ T mesh M i = 35 λ diff λ M i = 25 λ × M i = 32 λ O λ PET Sun b az h el ,
S Moon λ = rad Moon λ D g ,   λ M i = 5 15 λ × O λ PET Moon A slit b a ˙ z h el ,
S Earth λ = rad Earth λ M i = 45 λ O λ PET Earth b az h el ,
  S moon λ j = rad Moon λ I g λ π R Moon 2 M i = 5 15 λ × O λ h el / v el
= rad Moon * g ,   λ G λ ,
a Earth λ = π rad Earth λ / irr Sun λ ,
a Moon λ = π rad Moon λ / irr Sun λ ,

Metrics