Abstract

A new, to our knowledge, method for measuring the refractive index of liquids in the near infrared by means of waveguide Čerenkov second-harmonic generation is presented. It makes use of a nonlinear planar waveguide whereby the liquid sample is put into place as the cover. By measurement of the output angle of the Čerenkov radiation mode (in the visible) the liquid sample refractive index (in the near infrared) is determined. Experiments were performed by means of a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide as the sensor and a set of liquids with known refractive index. The values obtained are in good agreement with the expected ones, and the average accuracy is on the third decimal place.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Moreels, C. de Greef, R. Finsy, “Laser light refractometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3010–3013 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Kuhler, E. L. Dereniak, M. Buchanan, “Measurement of the index of refraction of the plastic Phenoxy PKFE,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1711–1714 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nemoto, “Measurement of refractive index of liquid using laser beam displacement,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6690–6694 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Mahmood bin Mat Yunus, A. bin Abdul Rahman, “Refractive index of solutions at high concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3341–3343 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Richerzhagen, “Interferometer for measuring the absolute refractive index of liquid water as a function of temperature at 1.064 μm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1650–1653 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, R. M. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 5.
  9. J. H. W. G. den Boer, G. M. W. Kroesen, F. J. De Hoog, “Measurement of the complex refractive index of liquids in the infrared using spectroscopic attenuated total internal reflection ellipsometry: correction for depolarization by scattering,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5708–5714 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. G. Müller, S. Sainov, S. Mittler-Neher, W. Knoll, “Design and test of a simple high-temperature laser microrefractometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 708–710 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. W. Chan, W. K. Lee, “Measurement of a liquid refractive index by using high-order rainbows,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 532–535 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Takeo, H. Hattori, “Silica glass fiber photorefractometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 44–50 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical output grating coupler as refractometer and (bio-)chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 461–465 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, “Direct measurement of effective indices of guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides using the Čerenkov second harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 12, 445–447 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. K. Burns, J. Warner, “Mode dispersion in uniaxial optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 441–446 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. F. Offersgaard, T. Veng, T. Skettrup, “Accurate method for determining the refractive-index profiles of planar waveguides in uniaxial media with the optical axis normal to the surface,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2602–2609 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1997

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. H. W. G. den Boer, G. M. W. Kroesen, F. J. De Hoog, “Measurement of the complex refractive index of liquids in the infrared using spectroscopic attenuated total internal reflection ellipsometry: correction for depolarization by scattering,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5708–5714 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical output grating coupler as refractometer and (bio-)chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 461–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Takeo, H. Hattori, “Silica glass fiber photorefractometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 44–50 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nemoto, “Measurement of refractive index of liquid using laser beam displacement,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6690–6694 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuhler, E. L. Dereniak, M. Buchanan, “Measurement of the index of refraction of the plastic Phenoxy PKFE,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1711–1714 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1984

1982

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974

Archenault, M.

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Azumai, Y.

Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M.

See, for example, R. M. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 5.

Bashara, N. M.

See, for example, R. M. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 5.

bin Abdul Rahman, A.

Buchanan, M.

Burns, W. K.

Chan, C. W.

Clerc, D.

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical output grating coupler as refractometer and (bio-)chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 461–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corini, S.

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Greef, C.

De Hoog, F. J.

De Micheli, M. P.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

den Boer, J. H. W. G.

Dereniak, E. L.

Docchio, F.

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doumuki, T.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
[CrossRef]

El-Baradie, B. Y.

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

El-Kashef, H.

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

El-Labban, M.

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finsy, R.

Gagnaire, H.

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goure, J. P.

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, G. E.

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H.

He, Q.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jafrezic-Renault, N.

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kasana, R. S.

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Kroesen, G. M. W.

Kuhler, K.

Lee, W. K.

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical output grating coupler as refractometer and (bio-)chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 461–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lyndin, N. M.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood bin Mat Yunus, W.

Mittler-Neher, S.

Moreels, E.

Müller, K. G.

Nemoto, S.

Offersgaard, J. F.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perini, M.

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Richerzhagen, B.

Robinson, W. C.

Sainov, S.

Saitoh, M.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

Sato, H.

Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seo, I.

Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Skettrup, T.

Sychugov, V. A.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeo, T.

Tamada, H.

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veng, T.

Veselka, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Warner, J.

Appl. Opt.

E. Moreels, C. de Greef, R. Finsy, “Laser light refractometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3010–3013 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mahmood bin Mat Yunus, A. bin Abdul Rahman, “Refractive index of solutions at high concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3341–3343 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kuhler, E. L. Dereniak, M. Buchanan, “Measurement of the index of refraction of the plastic Phenoxy PKFE,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1711–1714 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeo, H. Hattori, “Silica glass fiber photorefractometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 44–50 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. W. G. den Boer, G. M. W. Kroesen, F. J. De Hoog, “Measurement of the complex refractive index of liquids in the infrared using spectroscopic attenuated total internal reflection ellipsometry: correction for depolarization by scattering,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5708–5714 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Offersgaard, T. Veng, T. Skettrup, “Accurate method for determining the refractive-index profiles of planar waveguides in uniaxial media with the optical axis normal to the surface,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2602–2609 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Müller, S. Sainov, S. Mittler-Neher, W. Knoll, “Design and test of a simple high-temperature laser microrefractometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 708–710 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Richerzhagen, “Interferometer for measuring the absolute refractive index of liquid water as a function of temperature at 1.064 μm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1650–1653 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nemoto, “Measurement of refractive index of liquid using laser beam displacement,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6690–6694 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Doumuki, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, “Highly efficient Čerenkov-type second harmonic generation in a Ta2O5/KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3533–3535 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Azumai, I. Seo, H. Sato, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation with Čerenkov radiation scheme in organic film slab-guide at IR lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 231–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Čerenkov configuration second harmonic generation in proton exchanged lithium niobate guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1384–1393 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

F. Docchio, S. Corini, M. Perini, R. S. Kasana, “A simple and reliable system for measuring the refractive index of liquids using a position-sensitive detector,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 68–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

G. E. Hassan, H. El-Kashef, B. Y. El-Baradie, M. El-Labban, “Interferometric measurement of the physical constants of laser dye solvents,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 38–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jafrezic-Renault, “A simple intrinsic optical fibre refractometer,” Sens. Actuators B 5, 173–179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Clerc, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical output grating coupler as refractometer and (bio-)chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 461–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, O. Parriaux, “Waveguide coupling gratings for high-sensitivity biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 360–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

See, for example, R. M. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics