Abstract

Automated assembly and quality control require reliable systems for the detection of the position and the orientation of complicated objects. Correlation methods are well suited, but they are affected by structured backgrounds, varying illumination conditions, and textured or dirty object surfaces. Using fringe projection to exploit the three-dimensional topography of objects, we improve the performance of a nonlinear joint transform correlator. Positioning of noncooperative objects with subpixel accuracy is demonstrated. Additionally, the tilt angle of an arbitrarily shaped object is measured by projection of object-adapted fringes that produce a homogeneous fringe pattern in the image plane. An accuracy of better than 1° is achieved.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Harthong, H. Sahli, “Theory of moiré sensing by means of contour functions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1436–1443 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).
  4. T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Williams, ed., Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), Chap. 9.2.1, pp. 349–352.
  6. P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, “Optical Fourier transform: what is the optimal setup?” Appl. Opt. 21, 4368–4372 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Seldowitz, J. Allebach, D. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
  10. M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
  13. B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).
  19. U. Mahlab, J. Shamir, “Genetic algorithm for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. 16, 648–650 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Fleischer, U. Mahlab, J. Shamir, “Entropy optimized filter for pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2091–2098 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
  24. M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).
  25. Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).
  28. Y. Hsu, H. Arsenault, G. April, “Rotation-invariant digital pattern recognition using circular harmonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4012–4015 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Hester, D. Casasent, “Multivariant technique for multiclass pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1758–1761 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

1993 (2)

Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1982 (2)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M.

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Allebach, J.

April, G.

Arsenault, H.

Attia, M.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnea, D.

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, M.

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).

Casasent, D.

Cavadini, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.

Chatterji, B.

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, J.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Ding, M. I. J.

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, M.

Gu, Y.

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Guibert, L.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harthong, J.

Hendrix, C.

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).

Hester, C.

Hsu, Y.

Ichioka, Y.

Idesawa, M.

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Jared, D.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).

Javidi, B.

Johnson, K.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).

Joyeux, D.

Keryer, G.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, B.

B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).

Lowenthal, S.

MacKenzie, H.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mahlab, U.

Matsuoka, K.

Moddel, G.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).

Painchaud, D.

Pellat-Finet, P.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, K.

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B.

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W.

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).

Sahli, H.

Schönleber, M.

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).

Seldowitz, M.

Servel, A.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, J.

Shi, W.

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).

Silverman, H.

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

Tang, Q.

Taniguchi, M.

Thaler, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.

Tiziani, H.

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).

Tiziani, H.-J.

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tröster, G.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.

Will, P.

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wosnitza, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).

Yatagai, T.

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

J. Harthong, H. Sahli, “Theory of moiré sensing by means of contour functions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1436–1443 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, “Optical Fourier transform: what is the optimal setup?” Appl. Opt. 21, 4368–4372 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seldowitz, J. Allebach, D. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, U. Mahlab, J. Shamir, “Entropy optimized filter for pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2091–2098 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hsu, H. Arsenault, G. April, “Rotation-invariant digital pattern recognition using circular harmonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4012–4015 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hester, D. Casasent, “Multivariant technique for multiclass pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1758–1761 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.

D. Williams, ed., Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), Chap. 9.2.1, pp. 349–352.

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).

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