Abstract

Automated assembly and quality control require reliable systems for the detection of the position and the orientation of complicated objects. Correlation methods are well suited, but they are affected by structured backgrounds, varying illumination conditions, and textured or dirty object surfaces. Using fringe projection to exploit the three-dimensional topography of objects, we improve the performance of a nonlinear joint transform correlator. Positioning of noncooperative objects with subpixel accuracy is demonstrated. Additionally, the tilt angle of an arbitrarily shaped object is measured by projection of object-adapted fringes that produce a homogeneous fringe pattern in the image plane. An accuracy of better than 1° is achieved.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Harthong, H. Sahli, “Theory of moiré sensing by means of contour functions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1436–1443 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Williams, ed., Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), Chap. 9.2.1, pp. 349–352.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, “Optical Fourier transform: what is the optimal setup?” Appl. Opt. 21, 4368–4372 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).
  25. Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (5)

M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1982 (2)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M.

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Allebach, J.

April, G.

Arsenault, H.

Attia, M.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnea, D.

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, M.

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D.

Cavadini, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
[CrossRef]

Chatterji, B.

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, J.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Ding, M. I. J.

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, M.

Gu, Y.

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Guibert, L.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harthong, J.

Hendrix, C.

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hester, C.

Hsu, Y.

Ichioka, Y.

Idesawa, M.

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Jared, D.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Johnson, K.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Joyeux, D.

Keryer, G.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, B.

B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, S.

MacKenzie, H.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mahlab, U.

Matsuoka, K.

Moddel, G.

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Painchaud, D.

Pellat-Finet, P.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, K.

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B.

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W.

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sahli, H.

Schönleber, M.

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seldowitz, M.

Servel, A.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, J.

Shi, W.

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, H.

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

Tang, Q.

Taniguchi, M.

Thaler, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.-J.

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tröster, G.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
[CrossRef]

Will, P.

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wosnitza, M.

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, “Optimal incoherent correlator for noisy gray-tone image recognition,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2411–2413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

C. Hester, D. Casasent, “Multivariant technique for multiclass pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1758–1761 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hsu, H. Arsenault, G. April, “Rotation-invariant digital pattern recognition using circular harmonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4012–4015 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Joyeux, S. Lowenthal, “Optical Fourier transform: what is the optimal setup?” Appl. Opt. 21, 4368–4372 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seldowitz, J. Allebach, D. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, U. Mahlab, J. Shamir, “Entropy optimized filter for pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2091–2098 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Kumar, “Tutorial survey of composite filter design for optical correlators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4773–4801 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harthong, H. Sahli, “Theory of moiré sensing by means of contour functions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1436–1443 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Tang, B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with a chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taniguchi, K. Matsuoka, Y. Ichioka, “Computer-generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1379–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

D. Barnea, H. Silverman, “A class of algorithms for fast digital image registration,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 21, 179–186 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

B. Reddy, B. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Schönleber, H.-J. Tiziani, “Spatial light modulator used for the Fourier transformation of video images,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2039–2052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. Haist, H. Tiziani, “Computer-generated holograms from 3D objects written on twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Commun. 140, 299–308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatagai, M. Idesawa, “Use of synthetic deformed gratings in moiré topography,” Opt. Commun. 20, 243–245 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. I. J. Ding, T. Yatagai, “Design of optimal phase-only filters by direct iterative search,” Opt. Commun. 118, 90–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

M. Alam, Y. Gu, “Sobel operator based multiobject joint transform correlation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 100, 28–32 (1995).

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. Will, K. Pennington, “Grid coding: a novel technique for image processing,” Proc. IEEE 60, 669–680 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Wosnitza, M. Cavadini, M. Thaler, G. Tröster, “A scalable VLSI architecture for high-resolution real-time object detection,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) ’96 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 644–647.
[CrossRef]

D. Williams, ed., Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993), Chap. 9.2.1, pp. 349–352.

M. Schönleber, H. Tiziani, “Fast and flexible shape control with adaptive LCD fringe masks,” in Conference on Optical Inspection and Micromeasurement II, G. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 35–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Jared, K. Johnson, G. Moddel, “Joint transform correlation using an amorphous silicon ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 148–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, W. Rhodes, “Feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel MIN–MAX transformation,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1151, 332 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski, M. Bernhardt, “Marriage between digital holography and optical pattern recognition,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics IV, H. Caulfield, R. Johnson, Q. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 146–153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Kumar, C. Hendrix, W. Shi, “An algorithm for designing phase-only filters with maximally sharp correlation peaks,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing IV, D. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE1296, 132–139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for fringe-projection methods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Object-adapted fringe projection on a circular step object (with a tilt angle of 9° with respect to the reference orientation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fourier peak position versus the object tilt for object-adapted fringe projection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power plug in front of different backgrounds (the test object).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Numerical JTC correlation of the images shown in Fig. 4 and (b) modified correlation by use of fringe enhancement (see Fig. 5) and additional filtering in the Fourier plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Magnified part of a difference image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

One-dimensional visualization of the correlation between two signals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Numerical correlation obtained (a) without an optimized reference and (b) with a DBS optimized reference. A value of γ = 3 was applied to both images to enhance the noise for visualization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

PACE for a rotated object (central part of a spoon) with high rotational symmetry.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I x ,   y ,   z = I 0 x ,   y ,   z 1 + cos 2 π   cos   α p × x + z   tan   α ,
I x ,   y = I 0 x ,   y 1 + V x ,   y cos 2 π x   cos   α p + Φ x ,   y ,
Φ x ,   y = 2 π z x ,   y sin   α p .
I x ,   y = I 0 + I 0 V   exp i Φ exp i 2 π x   cos α / p + I 0 V   exp - i Φ exp - i 2 π x   cos α / p
: =   S 1 + S 2 + S 3 ,
s f x ,   f y : =   S x ,   y = S 1 + S 2 + S 3
: =   s 1 + s 2 + s 3 .
i f x ,   f y   : =   F x ,   y + G x ,   y 2
= f f x ,   f y f * f x ,   f y + g f x ,   f y g * f x ,   f y + f f x ,   f y g * f x ,   f y + g f x ,   f y f * f x ,   f y ,
C x ,   y = F x ,   y F x ,   y + G x ,   y G x ,   y + F x + 2 x 0 ,   y G x ,   y + F x - 2 x 0 ,   y G x ,   y ,

Metrics