Abstract

A new stereophotolithography technique utilizing a spatial light modulator (SLM) to create three-dimensional components with a planar, layer-by-layer process of exposure is described. With this procedure it is possible to build components with dimensions in the range of 50 μm–50 mm and feature sizes as small as 5 μm with a resolution of 1 μm. A polysilicon thin-film twisted nematic SVGA SLM is used as the dynamic photolithographic mask. The system consists of eight elements: a UV laser light source, an optical shutter, beam-conditioning optics, a SLM, a multielement reduction lens system, a high-resolution translation stage, a control system, and a computer-aided-design system. Each of these system components is briefly described. In addition, the optical characteristics of commercially available UV curable resins are investigated with nondegenerate four-wave mixing. Holographic gratings were written at a wavelength of 351.1 nm and read at 632.8 nm to compare the reactivity, curing speed, shrinkage, and resolution of the resins. These experiments were carried out to prove the suitability of these photopolymerization systems for microstereolithography.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.
  2. P. F. Jacobs, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1992).
  3. C. Soutar, L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hunziker, P. Bernhard, “Development of resin systems for stereolithography: holographic cure monitoring,” in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio (1990), pp. 79–85.
  5. C. Braüchle, D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  8. S. Bains, “Four million pixels sharpen color display,” Laser Focus World 33(12), 19–20 (1997).

1997 (1)

S. Bains, “Four million pixels sharpen color display,” Laser Focus World 33(12), 19–20 (1997).

1994 (1)

C. Soutar, L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Braüchle, D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Bains, S.

S. Bains, “Four million pixels sharpen color display,” Laser Focus World 33(12), 19–20 (1997).

Bernhard, P.

M. Hunziker, P. Bernhard, “Development of resin systems for stereolithography: holographic cure monitoring,” in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio (1990), pp. 79–85.

Braüchle, C.

C. Braüchle, D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

C. Braüchle, D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carré, C.

C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chatwin, C. R.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

Farsari, M.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

Fouassier, J. P.

C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heywood, M. I.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

Huang, S.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

Hunziker, M.

M. Hunziker, P. Bernhard, “Development of resin systems for stereolithography: holographic cure monitoring,” in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio (1990), pp. 79–85.

Jacobs, P. F.

P. F. Jacobs, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1992).

Kanghua, L.

C. Soutar, L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Lougnot, D. J.

C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Soutar, C.

C. Soutar, L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. C. D.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

C. Braüchle, D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Laser Focus World (1)

S. Bains, “Four million pixels sharpen color display,” Laser Focus World 33(12), 19–20 (1997).

Macromolecules (1)

C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Soutar, L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Hunziker, P. Bernhard, “Development of resin systems for stereolithography: holographic cure monitoring,” in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio (1990), pp. 79–85.

C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November1997), pp. 1–27.

P. F. Jacobs, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of control system architecture. DGI, digital gauge indicator; GND, ground.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. D.O.E., diffractive optical element; FWM, four-wave mixing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser beam profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CRL SVGA 800 × 600 SLM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity transmission through crossed and parallel polarizers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Basic bit-map manipulation process. FGB, frame grabber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time evolution of the diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the diffraction delay on the writing-beam irradiance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of diffraction efficiency on grating spacing in the resin.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of the diffracted-beam build-up rate on the writing-beam irradiance (this variable is a function of the reaction rate).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Interface and Performance Specification

Tables Icon

Table 2 Viscosity and Refractive Index of Investigated Materials

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T crossed = ξ sin α cos γ - α γ cos α sin γ 2 + β γ sin γ sin α + 2 χ - 2 Ψ 1 2 ,
T parallel = ξ cos α cos γ + α γ sin α sin γ 2 + β γ sin γ cos α + 2 χ - 2 Ψ 1 2 ,
γ = α 2 + β 2 1 / 2 ,
η = exp - ad / cos   θ sin 2 π Δ nd λ   cos   θ ,
2 Λ G   sin   θ = λ .

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