Abstract

The degree of polarization of light propagating through scattering media was measured as a function of the sample thickness in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer at a wavelength of λ = 633 nm. For polystyrene microspheres of diameters 200, 430, and 940 nm, depolarization began to appear for thicknesses larger than 23, 19, and 15 scattering mean free paths (SMFP’s), respectively, where the coherently detected scattered component dominates the ballistic component. For large particles (940 nm) the initial polarization survived partially in the scattering regime and progressively vanished up to the detection limit of our setup. This phenomenon was similarly observed in diluted blood from 12.5 to 280 SMFP’s. Beyond this thickness the fluctuating parallel and crossed components of polarization became random. A dual-channel interferometer allowed us to detect simultaneously the low-frequency fluctuations of both polarized components through a few millimeters in liver tissue.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (5)

1996 (8)

E. Leith, P. Naulleau, D. Dilworth, “Ensemble-averaged imaging through highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1691–1693 (1996).

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

J. M. Schmitt, G. Kumar, “Turbulent nature of the refractive-index variations in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1310–1312 (1996).

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Coherence gating in optical heterodyne detection measurements of scattering and absorption in highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 249–253 (1996).

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Temporal gating in highly scattering media by the degree of optical polarization,” Opt. Lett. 21, 161–163 (1996).

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1839–1841 (1996).

O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “Rotating polarization imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1706–1708 (1996).

1995 (8)

1994 (4)

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, “Scanning microscopy through thick layers based on linear correlation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1919–1921 (1994).

A. D. Sappey, “Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerated four-wave mixing correlation time gate,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8346–8354 (1994).

1993 (5)

1992 (2)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, “Multiply scattered waves through a spatially random medium: entropy production and depolarization,” J. Phys. (France) I 2, 2047–2043 (1992).

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

I. Freund, “Optical intensity fluctuations in multiply scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 81, 251–258 (1991).

1990 (1)

1989 (6)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

F. C. MacKintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

A. E. Profio, G. A. Navarro, “Scientific basis of breast diaphanography,” Med. Phys. 16, 60–65 (1989).

R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, A. Sichirollo, “Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2318–2324 (1989).

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, N. S. Nishioka, “Optical properties of rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2325–2330 (1989).

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

S. Flock, B. Wilson, M. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom material at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).

1984 (1)

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

1982 (3)

1980 (1)

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

1977 (1)

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulation parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).

Akatsuka, T.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Andreola, S.

Antonetti, A.

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

Avrillier, S.

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).

Berg, R.

Bertoni, A.

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, “Multiply scattered waves through a spatially random medium: entropy production and depolarization,” J. Phys. (France) I 2, 2047–2043 (1992).

Bigio, I. J.

Bilinsky, I. P.

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bretenaker, F.

Brezinski, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, “Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 277–283 (1993).

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, “Multiply scattered waves through a spatially random medium: entropy production and depolarization,” J. Phys. (France) I 2, 2047–2043 (1992).

Carlsen, E. N.

E. N. Carlsen, “Transillumination light scanning,” Diagnostic Imaging 3, 28–33 (1982).

Chan, K. P.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Coherence gating in optical heterodyne detection measurements of scattering and absorption in highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 249–253 (1996).

Chance, B.

X. D. Li, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, D. N. Pattanayak, “Diffraction tomography for biochemical imaging with diffuse-photon density waves,” Opt. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1997).

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Cheung, R. L.-T.

Cho, Y.

Damaschini, V.

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

Das, B. B.

de Filquelmont, M.

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

Debray, S.

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Temporal gating in highly scattering media by the degree of optical polarization,” Opt. Lett. 21, 161–163 (1996).

S. G. Demos, H. Savage, A. S. Heerdt, S. Shantz, R. R. Alfano, “Polarization preservation gate—a tool for optical mammography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CMD2, p. 20.

Devaraj, B.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

Dilworth, D.

Durduran, T.

Emile, O.

Fercher, A. F.

Flock, S.

S. Flock, B. Wilson, M. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom material at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Fraysse, F.

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

Freund, I.

I. Freund, “Optical intensity fluctuations in multiply scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 81, 251–258 (1991).

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Gaston, A.

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

Gelebart, B.

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

Ghesquière, S.

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Grillon, G.

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

Hashimoto, K.

Hayakawa, T.

Y. Yamashita, S. Susuki, S. Miyaki, T. Hayakawa, “The neonate brain (NIR) and breast imaging using transillumination,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 55–67.

Hee, M.

Hee, M. R.

Heerdt, A. S.

S. G. Demos, H. Savage, A. S. Heerdt, S. Shantz, R. R. Alfano, “Polarization preservation gate—a tool for optical mammography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CMD2, p. 20.

Hengstebeck, M.

H. J. Schnorrenberg, M. Hengstebeck, K. Schlinkmeier, “The attenuation of a coherent field by scattering,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).

Hielscher, A. H.

Ho, P. P.

Horinaka, H.

Hovenier, J. W.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Hung, B.-M.

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

Inaba, H.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Coherence gating in optical heterodyne detection measurements of scattering and absorption in highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 249–253 (1996).

Ishimaru, A.

Izatt, J.

Jacobson, J.

Jacques, S. L.

Jarlman, O.

Jarry, G.

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, J. Watson, T. Lépine, “Extinction measurements in diffusing mammalian tissue with heterodyne detection and a titanium-sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2045–2054 (1995).

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, “Heterodyne detection for measuring extinction coefficient in mammalian tissue,” J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 279–285 (1993).

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

J.-P. Lefebvre, G. Jarry, C. Jorand, “Optical processing of images obtained by transillumination of heterogeneous scattering and absorbing media,” in Optical Pattern Recognition II, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. SPIE1134, 154–159 (1989).

Jobsis, F. F.

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulation parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).

John, S.

F. C. MacKintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).

Jorand, C.

J.-P. Lefebvre, G. Jarry, C. Jorand, “Optical processing of images obtained by transillumination of heterogeneous scattering and absorbing media,” in Optical Pattern Recognition II, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. SPIE1134, 154–159 (1989).

Jurczak, M.

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

Kaiser, R.

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

Kempe, M.

Khong, M. P.

Kitai, T.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).

Kuga, Y.

Kumar, G.

Laurent, D.

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

Le Floch, A.

Lecarpentier, Y.

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

Lefebvre, J. P.

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

Lefebvre, J.-P.

J.-P. Lefebvre, G. Jarry, C. Jorand, “Optical processing of images obtained by transillumination of heterogeneous scattering and absorbing media,” in Optical Pattern Recognition II, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. SPIE1134, 154–159 (1989).

Leith, E.

Lépine, T.

Li, X. D.

Liang, X.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Maarek, J.-M.

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

Marchesini, R.

Martin, J.-L.

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

Melloni, E.

Mengedoht, K.

Mishchenko, M. I.

Miyaki, S.

Y. Yamashita, S. Susuki, S. Miyaki, T. Hayakawa, “The neonate brain (NIR) and breast imaging using transillumination,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 55–67.

Morgan, S. P.

Mourant, J. R.

Naulleau, P.

Navarro, G. A.

A. E. Profio, G. A. Navarro, “Scientific basis of breast diaphanography,” Med. Phys. 16, 60–65 (1989).

Nishioka, N. S.

Osawa, M.

Parsa, P.

Pattanayak, D. N.

Patterson, M.

S. Flock, B. Wilson, M. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom material at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).

Perez, J.

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

Pitris, C.

Poupinet, L.

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, J. Watson, T. Lépine, “Extinction measurements in diffusing mammalian tissue with heterodyne detection and a titanium-sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2045–2054 (1995).

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, “Heterodyne detection for measuring extinction coefficient in mammalian tissue,” J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 279–285 (1993).

Profio, A. E.

A. E. Profio, G. A. Navarro, “Scientific basis of breast diaphanography,” Med. Phys. 16, 60–65 (1989).

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Rudolph, W.

Sappey, A. D.

Savage, H.

S. G. Demos, H. Savage, A. S. Heerdt, S. Shantz, R. R. Alfano, “Polarization preservation gate—a tool for optical mammography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CMD2, p. 20.

Schlinkmeier, K.

H. J. Schnorrenberg, M. Hengstebeck, K. Schlinkmeier, “The attenuation of a coherent field by scattering,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, G. Kumar, “Turbulent nature of the refractive-index variations in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1310–1312 (1996).

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in multiple coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).

Schnorrenberg, H. J.

H. J. Schnorrenberg, M. Hengstebeck, K. Schlinkmeier, “The attenuation of a coherent field by scattering,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Shantz, S.

S. G. Demos, H. Savage, A. S. Heerdt, S. Shantz, R. R. Alfano, “Polarization preservation gate—a tool for optical mammography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CMD2, p. 20.

Shepherd, A. P.

Sichirollo, A.

Somekh, M.

Steimer, E.

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

Steinke, J. M.

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

Susuki, S.

Y. Yamashita, S. Susuki, S. Miyaki, T. Hayakawa, “The neonate brain (NIR) and breast imaging using transillumination,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 55–67.

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Tinet, E.

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

Tualle, J. M.

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

Usa, M.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Van Tiggelen, B.

B. Van Tiggelen, Laboratoire d’Expérimentation Numérique, Université Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble, France (personal communication, 1997).

Wada, K.

Wang, L.

Wang, Q. Z.

Watson, J.

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

Werner, W.

Wilson, B.

S. Flock, B. Wilson, M. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom material at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).

Yadlowsky, M. J.

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in multiple coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).

Yamada, M.

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Coherence gating in optical heterodyne detection measurements of scattering and absorption in highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 249–253 (1996).

Yamashita, Y.

Y. Yamashita, S. Susuki, S. Miyaki, T. Hayakawa, “The neonate brain (NIR) and breast imaging using transillumination,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 55–67.

Yodh, A. G.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in multiple coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).

A. D. Sappey, “Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerated four-wave mixing correlation time gate,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8346–8354 (1994).

R. L.-T. Cheung, A. Ishimaru, “Transmission, backscattering, and depolarization of waves in randomly distributed spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3792–3798 (1982).

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, J. Watson, T. Lépine, “Extinction measurements in diffusing mammalian tissue with heterodyne detection and a titanium-sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2045–2054 (1995).

J. M. Steinke, A. P. Shepherd, “Comparison of Mie theory and the light scattering of red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4027–4033 (1988).

A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).

R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, A. Sichirollo, “Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2318–2324 (1989).

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, N. S. Nishioka, “Optical properties of rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2325–2330 (1989).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Coherence gating in optical heterodyne detection measurements of scattering and absorption in highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 249–253 (1996).

Biophys. J. (1)

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).

Diagnostic Imaging (1)

E. N. Carlsen, “Transillumination light scanning,” Diagnostic Imaging 3, 28–33 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, T. Akatsuka, H. Inaba, “Recent advances in coherent detection imaging (CDI) in biomedicine: laser tomography of human tissues in vivo and in vitro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1008–1016 (1996).

J. Biomed. Eng. (2)

G. Jarry, S. Debray, J. Perez, J. P. Lefebvre, M. de Filquelmont, A. Gaston, “In vivo transillumination using near infrared laser pulses and differential spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 293–299 (1989).

G. Jarry, S. Ghesquière, J.-M. Maarek, F. Fraysse, S. Debray, B.-M. Hung, D. Laurent, “Imaging mammalian tissues and organs using laser collimated transillumination,” J. Biomed. Eng. 6, 70–73 (1984).

J. Opt. (Paris) (2)

G. Jarry, L. Poupinet, “Heterodyne detection for measuring extinction coefficient in mammalian tissue,” J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 279–285 (1993).

G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Jurczak, R. Kaiser, “Coherent components of forward light propagation through scattering media,” J. Opt. (Paris) 28, 83–89 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. (France) I (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, “Multiply scattered waves through a spatially random medium: entropy production and depolarization,” J. Phys. (France) I 2, 2047–2043 (1992).

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J.-L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurement on biological materials,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).

Med. Phys. (2)

A. E. Profio, G. A. Navarro, “Scientific basis of breast diaphanography,” Med. Phys. 16, 60–65 (1989).

S. Flock, B. Wilson, M. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom material at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. J. Schnorrenberg, M. Hengstebeck, K. Schlinkmeier, “The attenuation of a coherent field by scattering,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).

I. Freund, “Optical intensity fluctuations in multiply scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 81, 251–258 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. D. Briers, “Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 277–283 (1993).

Opt. Lett. (17)

E. Leith, P. Naulleau, D. Dilworth, “Ensemble-averaged imaging through highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1691–1693 (1996).

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995).

J. M. Schmitt, G. Kumar, “Turbulent nature of the refractive-index variations in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1310–1312 (1996).

S. Boppart, B. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. Tearney, J. Fujimoto, M. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618–1620 (1997).

A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–189 (1988).

Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1500 (1995).

X. D. Li, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, D. N. Pattanayak, “Diffraction tomography for biochemical imaging with diffuse-photon density waves,” Opt. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1997).

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, O. Jarlman, “Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1179–1181 (1990).

B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Ultrafast time gated imaging in thick tissues: a step toward optical mammography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1092–1094 (1993).

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, “Scanning microscopy through thick layers based on linear correlation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1919–1921 (1994).

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1486–1488 (1995).

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1839–1841 (1996).

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Temporal gating in highly scattering media by the degree of optical polarization,” Opt. Lett. 21, 161–163 (1996).

H. Horinaka, K. Hashimoto, K. Wada, Y. Cho, M. Osawa, “Extraction of quasi-straightforward-propagating photons from diffused light transmitting through a scattering medium by polarization modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1501–1503 (1995).

O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “Rotating polarization imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1706–1708 (1996).

M. Hee, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond transillumination tomography in thick tissues,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1107–1109 (1993).

M. Hee, J. Izatt, J. Jacobson, J. Fujimoto, E. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).

F. C. MacKintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiple scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Gelebart, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 377–388 (1996).

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulation parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).

Other (6)

Y. Yamashita, S. Susuki, S. Miyaki, T. Hayakawa, “The neonate brain (NIR) and breast imaging using transillumination,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 55–67.

J.-P. Lefebvre, G. Jarry, C. Jorand, “Optical processing of images obtained by transillumination of heterogeneous scattering and absorbing media,” in Optical Pattern Recognition II, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. SPIE1134, 154–159 (1989).

A. Ishimaru, Propagation and Scattering of Radiation in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

S. G. Demos, H. Savage, A. S. Heerdt, S. Shantz, R. R. Alfano, “Polarization preservation gate—a tool for optical mammography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CMD2, p. 20.

B. Van Tiggelen, Laboratoire d’Expérimentation Numérique, Université Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble, France (personal communication, 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. Polarizing components and retarding plates can be inserted according to the chosen polarization state. λ/2, half-wave plate; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; AOM’s, acousto-optic modulators; D, P–I–N diode detector; L, adjustable path length; M’s, mirrors; BS1, BS2, beam splitters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the dual-channel interferometer for in-time polarization contrast measurement. PC, personal computer; BS1, beam splitter; BS2, polarization beam-splitting cube; Py, linear polarizer oriented vertically; Px, linear polarizer oriented horizontally; D’s, P–I–N diode detectors; M’s, mirrors; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; AOM’s, acousto-optic modulators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction corresponding to Stokes parameters: OT yy parallel and OT xx perpendicular with the incident polarization versus thickness for polystyrene microspheres of 200-nm diameter suspended in water at a number density of 2.06 × 109 mm-3. (For the sake of clarity, OT ii linear at π/4 and OT++ circular components are not plotted.) P, degree of polarization computed from the four Stokes parameters; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between extinction of the polarization states and thickness for microsphere suspensions of 430 nm (N = 2.16 × 108 particles mm-3). The first part of the curve obeys the exponential law of ballistic propagation. The polarization degree decreases when the diffuse regime is observed. P, degree of polarization; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same polystyrene microspheres as in Fig. 4 but here with the suspension less concentrated (N = 2.7 × 107 particles mm-3). The diffuse regime is reached at a larger thickness. P, degree of polarization; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the extinction of polarization states and the medium’s thickness for microsphere suspensions of 940 nm (N = 4.32 × 106 particles mm-3). The polarization is partially preserved for the lower part of the diffuse regime, which corresponds to the snake component. P, degree of polarization; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The amplitude of the heterodyne signal is constant for L = 1 mm where ballistic propagation is dominant. (b), (c), Large fluctuations are typical of the scattered regime of propagation for L = 3 and L = 5 mm. Experience with latex beads of 940-nm diameter. Signal amplitudes are standardized. The time full scale is 15 ms. P, degree of polarization; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extinction of polarization states and polarization degree versus thickness for 1/5 diluted human blood. A polarized component continues for a few millimeters, even though the diffuse regime seems well established. Complete depolarization is obtained for larger path lengths when the signal vanishes at the detectivity limit of the method. P, degree of polarization; MFP, mean free path.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average values of polarized components OT yy and OT xx and average light polarization versus thickness for liver tissue. Pc, polarization contrast.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluctuations of polarized components OT yy and OT xx and instantaneous polarization contrast Pc recorded during 5 min (2 points/s) in a 4-mm-thick liver sample.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results Obtained for 200-nm Latex Microspheres (g = 0.32)a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results Obtained for 430-nm Latex Microspheres (g = 0.77)a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results Obtained for 940-nm Latex Microspheres (g = 0.92)a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results Obtained for Diluted Human Blooda

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ = ρ yy ρ xy ρ yx ρ xx .
P 2 = 1 - 4 ρ xx ρ yy - | ρ xy | 2 ρ xx + ρ yy 2 .

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