Abstract

Visible-light-emitting diodes of three different colors have been used to detect an absorbing compound (potassium permanganate) in trace quantities in aqueous solution. Photothermal absorption in a closed cell caused deflection of a water meniscus held at a small pinhole. The displacement was monitored with optical-fiber interferometry. The technique was limited by LED emission intensities and environmental acoustic noise, giving minimum detectable absorption coefficients of 2 × 10-4 cm-1 at 478 and 658 nm and 3 × 10-4 cm-1 at 524 nm. The magnitude and form of meniscus deflection signals were shown to be in good agreement with theory.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).
  2. Y.-H. Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).
  3. C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, “Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517–550 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Saloma, A. J. de Vera, “Photoacoustic depth profiling by cross-correlation using a GaAs light emitting diode,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2393–2397 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Viappiani, G. Rivera, “Use of LEDs as light sources in photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 1, 1257–1259 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Chey, P. Sultan, H. J. Gerritsen, “Resonant photoacoustic detection of methane in nitrogen using a room temperature infrared light-emitting diode,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3192–3194 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Braslavsky, G. E. Heibel, “Time-resolved photothermal and photoacoustic methods applied to photoinduced processes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 92, 1381–1410 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998

J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. E. Braslavsky, G. E. Heibel, “Time-resolved photothermal and photoacoustic methods applied to photoinduced processes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 92, 1381–1410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

C. Viappiani, G. Rivera, “Use of LEDs as light sources in photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 1, 1257–1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

1981

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, “Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517–550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Braslavsky, S. E.

S. E. Braslavsky, G. E. Heibel, “Time-resolved photothermal and photoacoustic methods applied to photoinduced processes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 92, 1381–1410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chey, J. W.

Dakin, J. P.

J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Vera, A. J.

Gerritsen, H. J.

Heibel, G. E.

S. E. Braslavsky, G. E. Heibel, “Time-resolved photothermal and photoacoustic methods applied to photoinduced processes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 92, 1381–1410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pao, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, “Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517–550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, G.

C. Viappiani, G. Rivera, “Use of LEDs as light sources in photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 1, 1257–1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).

Saloma, C.

Sultan, P.

Tam, A. C.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, “Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517–550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Viappiani, C.

C. Viappiani, G. Rivera, “Use of LEDs as light sources in photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 1, 1257–1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

S. E. Braslavsky, G. E. Heibel, “Time-resolved photothermal and photoacoustic methods applied to photoinduced processes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 92, 1381–1410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Tech.

J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, J. P. Dakin, “Photothermal detection of trace compounds in water, using the deflection of a water meniscus,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 9, 1316–1323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Viappiani, G. Rivera, “Use of LEDs as light sources in photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 1, 1257–1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, “Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517–550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).

Y.-H. Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the system used for photothermal detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer formed by the cleaved optical fiber and the meniscus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Low-finesse fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer used to detect the relative position of the meniscus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectrum of 5-ppm KMnO4 in solution (solid curve) with the normalized emission spectra of blue, green, and red LED’s superimposed (dashed curves), all determined by a diode array spectrometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photothermal signals resulting from absorption of light from a green LED in a 50-ppm solution of KMnO4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency response for photothermal signals produced when modulated light from a green LED was absorbed by a 50-ppm solution of KMnO4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photothermal signals from KMnO4 solutions (solid curves) and from deionized water controls (dashed lines) versus the absorption coefficients and fractional light absorption of KMnO4 at each wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photothermal meniscus deflection results excited by a 658-nm LED, following subtraction of the mean measured meniscus deflection for a deionized water control.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Emission of the Three LED’s Used for Photothrmal Detection

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted Photothermal Performance with Each LED

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ d = δ v   λ 4 π A .
V P water = V c κ .
V P meniscus = π a 4 8 γ ,
δ V = β δ E C p ρ ,
Δ h = a 2 Δ P 4 γ .
Δ h E = β a 2 4 C p ρ γ 1 V c κ + π a 4 8 γ .
Δ h p - p = 4 × 10 - 4 I 0 2 f 1 - 10 - α λ ,
α min 10 4 f Δ h rms I 0

Metrics