Abstract

An improved method for producing fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy is presented. The improvement consists of chemically etching quartz optical fibers through their acrylate jacket. This new method is compared with the previous one in which bare fibers were etched. With the new process the meniscus formed by the acid along the fiber does not move during etching, leading to a much smoother surface of the tip cone. Subsequent metallization is thus improved, resulting in better coverage of the tip with an aluminum opaque layer. Our results show that leakage can be avoided along the cone, and light transmission through the tip is spatially limited to an optical aperture of a 100-nm dimension.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, eds. Near Field Optics, (J. Wiley, New York, 1996).
  2. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical-fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1215–1228 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Turner, “Etch procedure for optical fibers,” U.S. Patent.4,469,554 (5April1983).
  6. T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical-fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hect, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–971 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizenberg, J.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dutoit, B.

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical-fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hect, B.

Hoffman, P.

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical-fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquis-Weible, F.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

Nettesheim, S.

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hect, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–971 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohsawa, H.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pangaribuan, T.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, M.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, C.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hect, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–971 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R.-P.

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical-fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sayah, A.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, D. R.

D. R. Turner, “Etch procedure for optical fibers,” U.S. Patent.4,469,554 (5April1983).

Valaskovic, G. A.

Whitesides, G. M.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zeisel, D.

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Zeisel, S. Nettesheim, B. Dutoit, R. Zenobi, “Pulsed laser-induced desorption and optical imaging on a nanometer scale with scanning near-field microscopy using chemically etched fiber tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2491–2492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, G. M. Whitesides, “Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

P. Hoffman, B. Dutoit, R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical-fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 165–170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Turner, “Etch procedure for optical fibers,” U.S. Patent.4,469,554 (5April1983).

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, eds. Near Field Optics, (J. Wiley, New York, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An optical fiber is dipped, with its acrylate jacket, in aqueous hydrofluorydric acid covered by oil as a protective layer. The acid diffuses through the acrylate and etches the quartz fiber. After 35 min a sharp tip is formed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SNOM tips obtained by chemical etching of (a) a fiber with its acrylate jacket, (b) a bare fiber; (c) and (d), corresponding axial views after metallization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular light distribution from a tip chemically etched (a) with the acrylate jacket, (b) without the acrylate jacket. The scale is in numerical apertures, NA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field line scan of a 1:1 chromium grating of period 372 nm. Solid curve, topography; dotted curve, near-field optical transmission. Optical resolution, Δx = 100 ± 10 nm.

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