Abstract

The standard refracted near-field technique for measuring the refractive-index profile of optical fibers cannot be directly used for silica-on-silicon integrated optical waveguides because of the opacity of silicon. A modified method is thus presented to characterize this kind of waveguide. The resolution it gives, both spatially and in the refracted index, is practically as good as that obtained with the standard technique for measuring optical fibers.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Mottier, “Integrated optics at the Laboratoires d’Electronique, de Technologie et d’Instrumentation,” Int. J. Optoelectron.9, 125–134 (1994); K. T. V. J. Magerand, G. Grand, P. Pouteau, P. Philippe, “Integrated polarization insensitive 1.3/1.55 micrometer duplexer on silica-based technology,” presented at the International Symposium on Integrated Optics, Lindau, Germany, 11–15 April 1994; V. Delisle, G. Grand, A. Fournier, P. Mottier, “Reduce-size low crosstalk PECUD silica phasar using widened continuous bends,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–75.
  2. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Stewart, “A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers,” in Technical Digest 1006 of the 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1977), pp. 395–398.
  5. K. I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fiber refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185–196 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Göring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7(3), 82–85 (1986).
  9. N. Gisin, J. P. Pellaux, P. Stamp, N. Hori, N. Masuyama, “Alternative configuration of refracted near-field measurements of refractive index on glass-integrated-optics waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7108–7112 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Goldberg, “Interferometrique method for measuring diffused channel waveguide-index profile,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3580–3588 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. Göring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7(3), 82–85 (1986).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

K. I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fiber refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185–196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Baines, J. G. N.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. A.

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, J. P. Pellaux, P. Stamp, N. Hori, N. Masuyama, “Alternative configuration of refracted near-field measurements of refractive index on glass-integrated-optics waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7108–7112 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, L.

Göring, R.

R. Göring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7(3), 82–85 (1986).

Hori, N.

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R. C.

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Masuyama, N.

Mottier, P.

P. Mottier, “Integrated optics at the Laboratoires d’Electronique, de Technologie et d’Instrumentation,” Int. J. Optoelectron.9, 125–134 (1994); K. T. V. J. Magerand, G. Grand, P. Pouteau, P. Philippe, “Integrated polarization insensitive 1.3/1.55 micrometer duplexer on silica-based technology,” presented at the International Symposium on Integrated Optics, Lindau, Germany, 11–15 April 1994; V. Delisle, G. Grand, A. Fournier, P. Mottier, “Reduce-size low crosstalk PECUD silica phasar using widened continuous bends,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–75.

Passy, R.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pellaux, J. P.

Perny, B.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Putland, D. E.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raine, K. W.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M.

R. Göring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7(3), 82–85 (1986).

Stamp, P.

Stewart, W. J.

W. J. Stewart, “A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers,” in Technical Digest 1006 of the 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1977), pp. 395–398.

White, K. I.

K. I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fiber refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185–196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, R. Passy, B. Perny, “Optical fiber characterization by simultaneous measurement of the transmitted and refracted near field,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1875–1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, “Integrated optics N × N multiplexer on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 896–899 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Göring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7(3), 82–85 (1986).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fiber refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185–196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Mottier, “Integrated optics at the Laboratoires d’Electronique, de Technologie et d’Instrumentation,” Int. J. Optoelectron.9, 125–134 (1994); K. T. V. J. Magerand, G. Grand, P. Pouteau, P. Philippe, “Integrated polarization insensitive 1.3/1.55 micrometer duplexer on silica-based technology,” presented at the International Symposium on Integrated Optics, Lindau, Germany, 11–15 April 1994; V. Delisle, G. Grand, A. Fournier, P. Mottier, “Reduce-size low crosstalk PECUD silica phasar using widened continuous bends,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 72–75.

W. J. Stewart, “A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers,” in Technical Digest 1006 of the 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1977), pp. 395–398.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RNF technique adapted for silica-on-silicon integrated optical waveguides. The incident beam is shaped as a quarter disk and focused through a diopter by a microscope objective (NA, 1.25) onto the end face of the component under test. On a detector a half-disk-shaped mask is centered around the optical axis. Consequently, only the refracted light rays that have an angle larger than θmin are collected by the detector. These correspond to incident rays that have an angle larger than φmin, where φmin and θmin are related by Eq. (2). The detected intensity I(x, y) is therefore a function of n(x, y).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profile of a NPL calibrated optical fiber glued onto a silica-on-silicon substrate. This fiber was measured with the setup of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raster scan of a silica-on-silicon integrated optical waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive-index profiles of the component under test in Fig. 3. The solid and dashed curves correspond to a scan perpendicular (x scan) and parallel (y scan), respectively, to the component’s surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raster scan of a second silica-on-silicon integrated optical waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index profiles of the component under test in Fig. 4. The solid and dashed curves correspond to a scan perpendicular (x scan) and parallel (y scan), respectively, to the component’s surface.

Equations (3)

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v 1 · s = v 2 · s ,
sin 2   φ = n x ,   y 2 n l 2 - cos 2   θ ,
θ min arccos 2 n min 2 - n max 2 1 / 2 n l ,

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