Abstract

We describe an electronic speckle-pattern interferometry system for analyzing addition fringes generated by the transient deformation of a test object. The system is based on a frequency-doubled twin Nd:YAG laser emitting dual pulses at a TV camera field rate (50 Hz). The main advance has been the automatic, quantitative analysis of dual-pulse addition electronic speckle-pattern interferometry data by the introduction of carrier fringes and the application of Fourier methods. The carrier fringes are introduced between dual pulses by a rotating mirror that tilts the reference beam. The resulting deformation-modulated addition fringes are enhanced with a deviation filter, giving fringe visibility close to that of subtraction fringes. The phase distribution is evaluated with a Fourier-transform method with bandpass filtering. From the wrapped phase distribution, a continuous phase map is reconstructed with an iterative weighted least-squares unwrapper. Preliminary results for a thin plate excited by an acoustic shock show the suitability of the system for the quantitative evaluation of transient deformation fields.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Sirohi, ed., Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  2. K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 349–394.
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. C. Shellabear, J. R. Tyrer, “Whole field in-plane vibration analysis using pulsed phase-stepped ESPI,” Appl. Opt. 30, 717–721 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Spooren, “Double-pulsed subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Digital processing of electronic speckle pattern interferometry addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5964–5969 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Lim, “Techniques for speckle noise removal,” Opt. Eng. 20, 670–678 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kreis, “Digital holographic interference-phase measurement using a Fourier-transform method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 847–855 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. P. van Haasteren, H. Frankena, “Real-time displacement measurement using a multicamera phase-stepping speckle interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4137–4142 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, J. R. Tyrer, “Simultaneous measurement of three orthogonal components of displacement by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1438–1445 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Double-pulsed addition ESPI for harmonic vibration and transient deformation measurements,” in Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, K. T. V. Grattan, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 228–238.
  15. A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Alcalá Ochoa, F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2783–2787 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, “Phase shifting for nonsinusoidal waveforms with phase-shift errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 761–768 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kujawinska, “Spatial phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), pp. 141–193.
  21. D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, G. E. Galizzi, “Unwrapping of interferometric phase fringe maps using the discrete cosine transform,” Appl. Opt. 35, 810–816 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, G. E. Galizzi, “Unwrapping of interferometric phase fringe maps using the discrete cosine transform,” Appl. Opt. 35, 810–816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. P. van Haasteren, H. Frankena, “Real-time displacement measurement using a multicamera phase-stepping speckle interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4137–4142 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Digital processing of electronic speckle pattern interferometry addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5964–5969 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Spooren, “Double-pulsed subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Lim, “Techniques for speckle noise removal,” Opt. Eng. 20, 670–678 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alcalá Ochoa, N.

N. Alcalá Ochoa, F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2783–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 349–394.
[CrossRef]

Davila, A.

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Digital processing of electronic speckle pattern interferometry addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5964–5969 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrant, D. I.

T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, J. R. Tyrer, “Simultaneous measurement of three orthogonal components of displacement by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1438–1445 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, “Phase shifting for nonsinusoidal waveforms with phase-shift errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 761–768 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankena, H.

Galizzi, G. E.

Halliwell, N. A.

G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, K.

Kaufmann, G. H.

D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, G. E. Galizzi, “Unwrapping of interferometric phase fringe maps using the discrete cosine transform,” Appl. Opt. 35, 810–816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Digital processing of electronic speckle pattern interferometry addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5964–5969 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, D.

D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, G. E. Galizzi, “Unwrapping of interferometric phase fringe maps using the discrete cosine transform,” Appl. Opt. 35, 810–816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Digital processing of electronic speckle pattern interferometry addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5964–5969 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kreis, T.

Kujawinska, M.

M. Kujawinska, “Spatial phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), pp. 141–193.

Lim, S.

S. Lim, “Techniques for speckle noise removal,” Opt. Eng. 20, 670–678 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza Santoyo, F.

Moore, A.

F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. J.

N. Alcalá Ochoa, F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2783–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Double-pulsed addition ESPI for harmonic vibration and transient deformation measurements,” in Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, K. T. V. Grattan, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 228–238.

Oreb, B. F.

T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, J. R. Tyrer, “Simultaneous measurement of three orthogonal components of displacement by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1438–1445 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, “Phase shifting for nonsinusoidal waveforms with phase-shift errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 761–768 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pérez López, C.

N. Alcalá Ochoa, F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI addition fringes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2783–2787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Double-pulsed addition ESPI for harmonic vibration and transient deformation measurements,” in Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, K. T. V. Grattan, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 228–238.

Petzing, J. N.

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, B.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shellabear, M. C.

Spooren, R.

R. Spooren, “Double-pulsed subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takatsuji, T.

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tyrer, J. R.

T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, J. R. Tyrer, “Simultaneous measurement of three orthogonal components of displacement by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1438–1445 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. C. Shellabear, J. R. Tyrer, “Whole field in-plane vibration analysis using pulsed phase-stepped ESPI,” Appl. Opt. 30, 717–721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Haasteren, A. J. P.

Womack, K. H.

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Davila, D. Kerr, G. H. Kaufmann, “Fast electro-optical system for pulsed ESPI carrier fringe generation,” Opt. Commun. 123, 457–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

R. Spooren, “Double-pulsed subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, A. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, N. Alcalá Ochoa, “Noise reduction in twin-pulsed addition electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1712–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Lim, “Techniques for speckle noise removal,” Opt. Eng. 20, 670–678 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

G. H. Kaufmann, D. Kerr, N. A. Halliwell, “Contrast enhancement of ESPI pulsed addition fringes,” Opt. Laser Eng. 20, 25–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. S. Sirohi, ed., Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 349–394.
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Double-pulsed addition ESPI for harmonic vibration and transient deformation measurements,” in Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, K. T. V. Grattan, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 228–238.

M. Kujawinska, “Spatial phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), pp. 141–193.

D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, D. Kerr, “Transient deformation measurement using dual-pulse addition ESPI,” in Ultrahigh and High-Speed Photography and Image-Based Motion Measurement, D. R. Snyder, A. Davidhazy, T. Etoh, C. Johnson, J. S. Walton, eds., Proc. SPIE3173, 132–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of dual-pulse system: VB, variable beamsplitter; SF, spatial filter and collimator; NPB, nonpolarizing beamsplitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulsed addition fringes showing out-of-plane deformation: (a) unfiltered and (b) filtered.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Deformation-modulated carrier fringes at increasing delay times after initiation of the impulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fourier transform of Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Wrapped phase map. (b) Phase inconsistencies.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rewrapped phase map.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-unwrapping algorithm convergence.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase map with carrier removed.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I A = I 1 + I 2 = 2 I 0 + I r + 2 I 0 I r cos   ψ   +   cos ψ + Δ ϕ + Δ α ,
I V x ,   y = 1 I ¯ x ,   y i , j = - k + k I x + i ,   y + j - I ¯ x ,   y 2 ,
I ¯ x ,   y = 1 N 2 i , j = - k + k   I x + i ,   y + j .
I α x ,   y = 1 N 2 i , j = - k + k   | I x + i ,   y + j - I ¯ x ,   y | .
I x ,   y = a x ,   y + b x ,   y cos ϕ x ,   y + 2 π fx ,
I x ,   y = a x ,   y + c x ,   y exp 2 π ifx + c * x ,   y exp - 2 π ifx ,
I υ ,   ν = A υ ,   ν + C υ - f ,   ν + C * - υ - f ,   - ν ,
ϕ x ,   y + 2 π fx = arctan Im g x ,   y Re g x ,   y ,

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